Brief on CAADP/Malabo Commitments
In 2003, Africa adopted the Comprehensive Africa Development Programme (CAADP), an agriculture-led integrated development framework to boost African Agriculture. With CAADP, the signatory states had committed to investing at least 10% of their budget in the agricultural sector to attain a minimum 6% average annual growth of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (AgGDP). By August 2017, fifty countries were engaged in CAADP, while 42 had developed CAADP compacts and 33 had national investment plans (NAIPS) (De Pinto, and Ulimwengu, 2017). The African Heads of State and Government adopted the 2014 Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods out of the 23rd Ordinary Session of the Africa Union Assembly in Equatorial Guinea. The declaration reaffirmed the commitments of the 2003 Maputo Declaration and agreed to additional commitment areas including ending hunger and halving poverty by 2025, tripling intra-African trade in agricultural commodities and services by 2025, enhancing resilience in livelihoods, and strengthening mutual accountability to actions and results (AUC, 2014).
Malabo Declaration is framed around seven commitments to transform agriculture across the continent over the next decade. They include: (1) continue pursuing the values and principles of the CAADP process; (2) enhance public and private investment in agriculture; (3) end hunger in Africa by 2025 by doubling current agricultural productivity levels and halving post-harvest losses; (4) halve poverty by 2025 through inclusive growth; (5) triple intra-African trade in agricultural commodities and services by 2025; (6) enhance resilience of livelihoods and production systems to climate variability and related risks; and (7)enhancing mutual accountability for actions and results . To ensure accountability and success, the Declaration calls for a systematic progress review along with increased capacity for the African Union Commission (AUC) to deliver on these commitments. Thus, the seventh commitment is on Mutual Accountability to Actions through systematic regular review process guided by the CAADP Results Framework. Biennial Agricultural Reviews (BR) and the Agriculture Joint Sector Review (JSR) are the key mutual accountability processes within the CAADP context. Through Malabo declaration African Union Member States committed to report progress biennially (AUC, 2014).
Existing policies, plans and programs in the agriculture sector and involvement of smallholder farmers in making them
Kenya’s commitment for agriculture-led growth coincided with the Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security in Africa. Kenya is among the countries that endorsed the Maputo Declaration (AUC 2003) in 2003. In March 2004, Kenya developed and launched the Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture (SRA).The SRA was to cover a period of ten years (2004-2014), and although it was reported to be largely successful, surpassing the set growth target of 3.1 percent per annum, it was revised to build further on the gains that had been made and accommodate the lessons that had been learnt. The revision of the SRA with emphasis on the sector-wide approach created the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) in 2010.
In the year 2008, Kenya launched the Vision 2030 as the country’s long-term economic blue print to guide the development process. The Vision’s objective is to transform Kenya into a newly industrialized middle-income country providing a high-quality life to all its citizens by the year 2030.In response to the Vision 2030, the agricultural sector ministries developed the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS 2010-2020) that envisages a food secure and prosperous nation. The strategy’s overall objective is to achieve an agricultural growth of 7% per year. The strategy’s development process was in alignment with the CAADP compact aspirations.The ASDS is therefore Kenya’s tool for implementing CAADP. The ASDS was launched on 24th July 2010 together with the signing of the Kenya CAADP Compact.
Kenya signed the CAADP Compact in July 2010, alongside the launching of the ASDS. The ASDS implementation framework was divided into two 10 year plans, 2010-2015 and 2016-2020, in line with Vision 2030 which is implemented through 5 year Medium Term Plans. Several projects were developed to implement the ASDS among them: The Agriculture Sector Development Support Programme and the Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Programme (KAPAP).The 23rd Ordinary Session of the African Union Assembly held in June 2014 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea recommitted to the CAADP principles and goals and defined a set of targets and goals referred to as the Accelerated Agriculture Growth and Transformation Goals 2025.
Just after launching the ASDS, a new constitution was promulgated in October 2010 that created two levels of government with clear functions. National Government being responsible for Policy Development and Capacity Building county staff and the County Governments being responsible for policy implementation. Therefore, the institutional sector setting in which ASDSP operated has changed significantly. The consolidation of national ministries has changed dynamics with respect to horizontal sector coordination, as most of the consolidated sector ministries now perform several of the ten sector functions covered by the ASDS. Likewise, the devolution of functions to county governments has necessitated an increased focus on establishment of mechanisms for intergovernmental, or vertical, coordination. In early 2016 the Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries, identified a need to deepen and widen the ownership of the agricultural sector coordination effort, define a new strategic and planning framework for the sector to replace the ASDS, and strengthen the attention to change management within the Sector. This led to the establishment of the Agriculture Transformation and Growth Strategy (ATGS). This new sector strategy will replace the 2009 Agricultural Sector Development Strategy. The ATGS is grounded on evidence-based analysis of current and future challenges and opportunities, with a view to identify national targets of key food security and export value chains that will make the country food secure and transform agriculture by the year 2020.
Involvement in the National Climate Change Adaptation Plans
Involvement of Small Holder Farmers
The Kenya National Farmers’ Federation (KENAFF) is a non-political, non-profit making and democratic member-based umbrella organization of all farmers in Kenya. It represents the interests of about 2 million farm families as the legitimate farmers’ voice with the objective of articulating issues affecting them through focused lobby and advocacy, targeted capacity building and promotion of sector stakeholders’ cohesiveness in dispensing and progressive uptake of agricultural innovations for enhanced socio-economic status of the farmers
KENAFF is partnering with the State Department of Crop Development of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation in the implementation of this project, co-funded by the World Bank and the Government of Kenya (GoK). The project’s objective is to increase agricultural productivity and build resilience to Climate Change risks in targeted smallholder farming and pastoral communities in Kenya. KCSAP will be implemented in 24 Counties (Marsabit, Isiolo, Tana River, Garissa, Wajir, Mandera, West Pokot, Baringo, Laikipia, Machakos, Nyeri and Tharaka Nithi. Others are Lamu, Taita Taveta, Kajiado, Busia, Siaya, Nyandarua, Bomet, Kericho, Kakamega, Uasin Gishu, ElgeyoMarakwet and Kisumu.) KENAFF mandate in the project is to support the establishment and operationalization of productive alliances and producer organizations. KENAFF is to also build and implement strategies to ensure the progressive growth, success and sustainability of the productive alliances and producer organizations.
Kenya Small Scale Farmers Forum (KESSFF)
The Agriculture Council of Kenya (AgCK)
This is the apex body for all agriculture sector private stakeholders. The private sector includes all value chain actors whose interest are commercial gains and includes producers, input suppliers, agro-traders (retailers and wholesalers) and agro-processors. One of the strategic aim of the organization is counter the climate change and other related impacts through promotion of integrated risk reduction functions and up take of Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA)practices towards more stable and sustainable agribusiness ventures.
The structure of the budget making cycle in Kenya
The budget process in Kenya is an important part of government planning and decision-making and is a comprehensive process. It begins from August of the current financial year to December of the next financial year.A financial year (or fiscal year, or sometimes a budget year) is the period that governments use for accounting and budget purposes and financial reporting. The budget process in Kenya is guided by the Constitution and the Public Finance Management Act. This process takes place at both the national government and the county governments.The budget process is designed such that is allows the public to present their views on the budget at various stages.The process also allows the national and county governments to prioritize the needs of the people and align the needs of government policy.There are four major stages of the budget process in Kenya which are:
The Executive arms of both the national and the county governments overseethis stage. Some of theimportant processes that should take place at this stage include:
- Integrated development planning process which shall include both long-term and medium-term planning;
- Planning and determining financial and economic policies and priorities over the medium term;
- Preparing overall estimates in the form of the Budget Policy Statement of national government revenues and expenditures, and overall estimates in the form of the County Fiscal Strategy Paper for the county governments;
- Preparing the budget estimates.
The public should also participate in the formulation stage through public participation fora. Through participatory budgeting, citizens can allocate resources, prioritize broad social policies, and monitor public spending.
Approval stage takes place at both the national and county governments. At this stage, the Parliament and the 47 County Assemblies are in charge. At this stage several important activities take place:
- Parliament adopt the Budget Policy Statement and the County Assemblies adopt their respective County Fiscal Strategy Papers, as a basis for future deliberations;
- Amending and approving the budget estimates after the national or county Executive (specifically the Treasury) tables them before Parliament or the County Assembly takes place.
- Enacting the Appropriation Bill and any other Bills required to implement the budgetary proposals.
The Executive at the national and the county level is in charge of the implementation stage. At this stage, the Executive implements the budget proposals passed by Parliament or the County Assemblies.Activities that take place at this stage include:
- Evaluating and accounting for, the national and county governments’ budgeted revenues and expenditures; and
- Reviewing and reporting on those budgeted revenues and expenditures every three months.
This is usually the last stage of the budget process. At this stage, the Kenya National Audit Office (KENAO, or the Office of the Auditor General) audits and reports on the accounts of both the national and the county governments.The audit report usuallyconfirm whether (or not) both levels of government spent public money lawfully and in an effective way. At this stage, KENAO table the reports before Parliament or the relevant county assembly. After receiving an audit report, Parliament or the county assembly should debate and consider the report and take appropriate action.
A full financial year in Kenya begins on 1st July of the current calendar year and ends on 30th June of the coming year and is divided into four quarters each comprising of 3 months.
1st Quarter (1st July to 30th September)
August 30: This date marks the beginning of the budget process in Kenya. On this date, the National Treasury and the County Treasury issue circulars to their respective departments. The circulars contain the guidelines for the budget process for the coming financial year andthe procedures to follow to involve the public in the budget process (public participation).The National and County Treasuries should also make the circulars available to the public.
September 1: On this day, the County Planning Departments should table the Annual Development Plans (ADPs) in their respective Assemblies. The ADPs should then be made public within seven days after tabling them before the Assembly. The national government does not produce an Annual Development Plan. It relies on the Vision 2030 national long-term development blueprint. There is no specific date by which the County Assembly should approve the ADPs.
September 1 to February 15: The National Treasury and the County Treasuries should conduct sector hearings during this period. The sector hearings allow the public and other stakeholders to give their views at the sectoral level (e.g. security, health, agriculture, education, etc.). These views are necessary to enable the National Treasury to prepare National Budget Policy Statement and the County Treasuries to prepare the County Fiscal Strategy Paper.
September 30: By this date, the National Treasury and the County Treasuries should produce their respective Budget Review and Outlook Papers. This date is also the deadline for the National Assembly and the County Assembly to consider and approve the Finance Bill for the current financial year beginning on 1st July. Both Assemblies should consider and approve the Bill with or without amendments.
December 31: The Auditor General or the Kenya National Audit Office (KENAO) releases the audit reports. These reports are for both the national and the county governments for the previous financial year ending on 31st June.
2nd Quarter (1st October-31stDecember)
On October 21, the National Treasury should table national Budget Review and Outlook Paper (BROP) before the National Assembly. The County Treasuries should also table the County Budget Review and Outlook Paper before their respective County Assemblies. This allows both Assemblies to discuss the document.
October 31 is the deadline for County governments to publish their first quarter budget implementation reports. The reports cover the period from 1st July to 31st September of the current financial year. They should then make the reports public, usually through their respective websites.
October 31: This is the deadline for the Controller of Budget (CoB) to release the 1st quarter budget implementation reports for both the national government and county governments respectively. The Office of CoB should then table these reports before the Senate and the National Assembly and make them public.
November 15: On this date, the National Government should publish its first-quarter budget implementation report covering the period from 1st July to September 31st of the current financial year. The report should be tabled before the National Assembly. Thereafter, it should make the report public, usually through the Treasury website. The National Treasury releases the national government reports under the title “Quarterly Economic & Budgetary Review” (QEBR).
3rd Quarter (1st January-30th March)
January 1: The Commission for Revenue Allocation (CRA) should submit its recommendations on the vertical sharing of national revenue to the National Treasury by this date. The vertical sharing is the division of the ordinary revenue that the national government raises nationally between the national and the county governments.
January 31: County governments should publish and publicize their 2nd quarter budget implementation reports. The reports cover the period from 1st October to 31st December of the current financial year.
January 31: The deadline for the Controller of Budget to release the 2nd quarter budget implementation reports. The reports are for both the national and the county governments. The office of CoB should table the reports before Parliament and then make them public.
February 15: The national government publishes its 2nd quarter budget implementation report for the period of 1st October to 31st December. It should table the report before the National Assembly and then make it public.
February 15: The National Treasury submits four crucial documents to parliament on this date. These are the:
- National Budget Policy Statement (BPS);
- medium-term Debt Management Strategy paper;
- The Division of Revenue Bill (DoRB); and
- the County Allocation of Revenue Bill (CARB).
February 28: Parliament should approve the Budget Policy Statement (BPS) by this date.
February 28: The County Treasuries should table their respective County Fiscal Strategy Paper (CFSP) before the County Assemblies by this date.
28th February: The Cabinet Secretary for Finance should submit the statement on the Debt Management Strategy to the Commission on Revenue Allocation and the Intergovernmental Budget and Economic Council. The CS of Finance should then publish and publicize the statement.
March 1: This is the deadline for the National Treasury to publish and publicize the Budget Policy Statement after tabling it before parliament.
March 7: The deadline for the County Treasuries to publish and publicize their Fiscal Strategy Paper after tabling them before the County Assembly.
March 14: The County Assemblies should approve their respective County Fiscal Strategy Paper by this date.
March 15: This is the deadline for Parliament to consider the Division of Revenue and County Allocation of Revenue Bills and approve them with or without amendments.
4th Quarter (1st April to 30th June)
30th April: Deadline for the Counties to publish their third-quarter budget implementation reports.
April 30: Deadline for the Controller of Budget to publish and publicize the 3rd quarter budget implementation reports. The reports are for both the national and the county governments.
April 30: The National Treasury should submit the national budget proposal (or budget estimates) before Parliament. The Judiciary and the Parliamentary Service Commission should also submit their own independent budgets before parliament.
30th April: Each County Treasury should submit the county budget proposal (or budget estimates) to the County Assembly on this date. Each County Assembly clerk shall prepare, and submit to the County Assembly, the budget estimates for the County Assembly. The clerk should submit a copy of the estimates the County Executive Committee Member for Finance.
May 1 to June 30: Some of the activities that take place during this period have no specific timelines or deadlines.
- The Budget Committees for both the National and the County governments will begin to conduct public hearings on the budget proposals/estimates.
- The Cabinet Secretary for Finance and the County Executive Member for Finance should publicize the national and county budget estimates ‘as soon as practicable’ after they table them before the national and county assembly respectively.
- The national assembly and the county assembly shall consider the national and the county government budget estimates respectively. They shall then approve them, with or without amendments, in time for the Appropriation Bill and any other laws required to implement the budget (except the Finance Bill) and pass them by 30th June in each year.
- Not later than twenty-one days after the national and the county assembly have approved the budget estimates, the National and the County Treasury shall consolidate the estimates, publish, and publicize them respectively. (Approved Budget)
- Upon approval of the budget estimates by the National Assembly and the County Assembly, the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and the County Executive Member for Finance shall prepare and submit an Appropriation Bill of the approved estimates to the National Assembly and the County Assembly respectively.
May 15: The national government should publish its 3rd quarter budget implementation report.
June 30: This is the deadline for Parliament and the County Assembly to pass their Appropriation Bills.
From June 30th, the budget process in Kenya continues afresh. You should again expect the Finance Bill and the KENAO audit reports. These reports mark the end of the budget process in Kenya from the previous year. Despite that, we shall begin a new budget cycle in August going forward.
The History of the joint agriculture sector review (JASR) process in the country and its timeline
The seventh commitment in the Malabo Declaration is on Mutual Accountability to Actions through systematic regular review process guided by the CAADP Results Framework. Biennial Agricultural Reviews (BR) and the Agriculture Joint Sector Review (JSR) are the key mutual accountability processes within the CAADP context. JSR is one way of operationalizing the Mutual Accountability Framework at country level. The process creates a platform to:
- Assess the performance of the agriculture sector
- Assist governments to assess effectiveness of sector policies and strategies
- Assess how well state and non-state actors have implemented pledges and commitments (laid out in CAADP compacts, NAIPs, and other agreements)
- Guide decisions to continue with or adjust in implementation of NAIP or other agreement
A sector-wide agricultural joint sector review in Kenya has not been regular event. However, some form of review take place at different levels. For instance, in 2010 a Joint Agricultural Sector Review (JASR) is reported to have been undertaken but it may not have followed the steps of the best because the report is not available. Some elements of Ag. Review are undertaken under the Public Expenditure Review and the Annual Economic Review of Agriculture (ERA). A Joint Sector Review assessment was undertaken in 2015 and validated in 2017. Report and recommendations are available. Kenya-Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (SAKSS) is charged with responsibility to conduct Joint sector review in line with best practice. Plans are in place to conduct JSR regularly to assess the performance of the sector through implementation of the new Strategy and its NAIP.
Major areas of agriculture in the country and their significances: Crops, Livestock and Fisheries
In the past three decades, agriculture has remained central to Kenya’s economic development. In 2017, Agriculture directly contributed 31.3% to GDP equivalent to KShs. 2.695 trillion and a further 27% GDP indirectly through linkages with manufacturing & service related sectors (Economic Survey, 2018). The crop, livestock, and fishery sub-sectors contribute approximately 78%, 14%, and 2% to the agricultural GDP, respectively.
Level of participation of smallholder farmers in the National Agriculture budget making 2018/19 processes
Public participation in the budget circle at the county level is facilitated by A County Budget and Economic Forum (CBEF) which each of the 47 counties should have. The foundation for the forum is laid in Section 137 of the Public Finance Management Act. The functions of the forum include:
- To coordinate and collect views from the public during the budgeting process.
- A think-tank for the County government in terms of financial and economic management.
- Assist a county to:
- Analyze and identify its priorities as they budget for programs,
- Improve coordination between the citizens and government, and
- Improve harmonization of project implementation and funding.
The Forum membership includes:
- The Governor who is the chairperson;
- Other members of the County Executive Committee.
- Several representatives equal to the number of executive committee members appointed by the Governor. They should be nominated by (and represent) organisations representing professionals, business, labour issues, women, persons with disabilities, the elderly, andfaith-based groups at the county level. The persons should not come from county public officers.
Article 10 of the Kenyan Constitution enshrines the national values and principles of governance. Though it will take some time to fully effect and realize public participation in the Kenyan counties it is one of the way of ensuring transparency and accountability in governance. A case example is the importance of public participation in the oversight of public finance in Kenya.
Amount of public funds (and in percentages) allocated to agriculture sector in 2015/16, 2016/17, 2017/18, and 2018/19 against the Malabo Goal 10% as share of total public expenditure.
In this section we examine government agricultural expenditure as a percentage of total government expenditure for evaluating progress towards the CAADP 10% target. We also look at the actual allocation to specific areas like agriculture input, extension services, irrigation and research.Statistics obtained from the Economic Survey, 2018 indicate that in absolute terms, the country have registered an increase in their budgetary allocations to agriculture. However, in many cases the amounts spent relative to the total national expenditures has stagnated or only increased marginally for the last three years.
Source: Economic survey, 2018
Share of Government Agriculture Expenditure in Total Government Expenditure, %
Source: Economic survey, 2018
The level of actual budget disbursement to the Agriculture sector in 2017/18, and 2017/18 by June 2017 and June 2018
National Agriculture Sector budget 2018/19, and its allocation to agriculture input, extension services, irrigation, and research and others.
The 2018/19 budget has been prepared in the context of a medium-term macro-fiscal framework geared towards implementing the third medium-term plan of Vision 2030. And its priorities have mainly been informed by the Big Four Agenda: manufacturing, universal health coverage, affordable housing and food security. The priorities of the government for the manufacturing sector include enhancing access to inputs and markets, expansion of infrastructure, reducing the cost of energy, and skill development.
To achieve food and nutrition security, the government prioritizes investment in largescale production (commercial farming), improving the productivity of smallholder farmers, and reducing the cost of food. The priorities for universal healthcare include scaling up health insurance coverage (especially among vulnerable groups), constructing referral hospitals, increasing availability of health personnel, and equipping hospitals with specialised equipment. In the housing sector, the priorities of the government include reducing the cost of construction, supporting development and provision of affordable home financing solutions, and upgrading informal settlements through provision of basic infrastructure and services such as water and sanitation.
pro-poor analysis of Kenya’s 2018/19 budget estimates
The national government’s net expenditure and lending for the 2018/19 fiscal year is Ksh 2.53 trillion, equivalent to 25.9% of Kenya’s GDP. This is 8.8% higher than the 2017/18 budget. Of this, Ksh 657.3 billion has been earmarked for development expenditure – a 12.8% increase in allocations from 2017/18. The development budget accounts for 26% of the total budget, which is less than the minimum 30% threshold required by the Public Finance Management Act, 2012.
The projected revenue collection including appropriation-in-aid amounts to Ksh 1.92 trillion or 19.6% of GDP. This is higher than the 2017/18 revenue estimates by 15.9%. Ordinary revenue and appropriation-in-aid are expected to increase by 17% and 5.9% respectively. Grants are expected to increase by 9.5%. The expected improvement in revenue collection is underpinned by recent tax reforms that include simplifying and modernising value added tax (VAT) and tax appeals tribunal legislations, as well as operationalising the Excise Tax Act. Next, the government plans to overhaul the Income Tax Act, strengthen tax administration and expand the tax base to improve revenue collection.
Fiscal deficit in 2018/19 is expected to reduce by 10.2% to Ksh 562.7 billion14 or 5.7% of GDP from Ksh 626.7 billion or 7.2% of GDP in 2017/18 (Figure 4). This decrease is explained in part by ongoing fiscal consolidation programmes and because revenue collection is expected to grow much faster than expenditure in 2018/19. The government aims to reduce the deficit further to below 3% of GDP by 2022.
The fiscal deficit will be financed by borrowing Ksh 282.5 billion (50.2% of the deficit) in external financial markets and Ksh 276.1 billion (49.1% of the deficit) from the domestic market. The balance of Ksh 4.2 billion (0.7% of the deficit) will be financed through domestic receipts other than borrowing
The food security initiatives currently being implemented by the government include the National Agricultural Insurance Programme, fertiliser subsidy programme, Kenya Cereal Enhancement Programme and Small-Scale Irrigation and Value Addition programme. These initiatives are expected to facilitate achieving SDG 2 (no hunger) in Kenya, particularly targets 2.1, 2.3, and 2.4.42
The Kenya National Agricultural Insurance programme facilitates access to crop insurance through insurance premium subsidies the government provides to small-scale farmers. As of mid-2017, 230,000 farmers in 10 counties had benefitted from the programme. In 2018/19, the government aims to cover 1.5 million farmers. To achieve this target, the crop insurance subsidy programme has been allocated Ksh 371.8 million – a 23.9% increase since 2016/17. Nonetheless, the programme has a financing deficit of Ksh 28.2 million for the 2018/19 fiscal year.43
The fertiliser subsidy programme is aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity to spur economic growth and ensure food security. 531,481 metric tons of subsidisedfertilisers were distributed to 2.3 million famers between 2014/15 and 2016/17. According to the MTEF for the agriculture sector, the government aims to increase the supply of subsidisedfertilisers by 18.7% from 168,480 metric tons in 2017/18 to 200,000 metric tons in 2018/19. This will see the number of beneficiaries increase by 19.1% to 250,000 farmers in 2018/19. It is not clear how this target will be achieved given that funding to the programme has reduced by 6.5% to Ksh 4.3 billion from Ksh 4.6 billion in 2016/17
Irrigation and land reclamation
Apart from the Small-Scale Irrigation and Value Addition Project, the government runs small, medium and large-scale irrigation schemes through the State Department for Irrigation. In 2018/19, the department will receive Ksh 18 billion – a 36.4% increase from 2017/18. Of this, Ksh 7.4 billion or 41.1% of the department’s budget is earmarked for irrigation and land reclamation. This is only 1.4% higher than allocation to irrigation and land reclamation in 2017/18. Meanwhile the government aims to expand the area under irrigation and rehabilitate some of the existing irrigation schemes. For instance, in the Bura Irrigation Scheme 8,000 acres will be rehabilitated
Agriculture sector annual growth and percentages in 2014/15, 2015/16, 2017/18, and 2018/19
The agriculture sector recorded a decelerated growth of 1.6 per cent compared to 4.7 per cent growth in 2016. The depressed growth in 2017 was due to depressed rainfall that affected production of major crops and animal products, (Economic Survey, 2018).
Agriculture sector annual growth
Source: Economic survey, 2018
The Poverty level in the country (in percentage and number) 2015/16, 2017/18, and 2018/19
Poverty in Kenya reduced from 52.6% of the population in 1997 to 46.6% in 2005/06 and 36.1% in 2015/16. In addition, the proportion of the population living in extreme poverty reduced significantly from 29.6% in 1997 to 19.1% in 2005/06 and further declined to 8.6% in 2015/16. However, due to population growth the number of people living in poverty may increase despite reduced incidence of poverty over time. In fact, the number of poor people in Kenya increased by 16.9% from 14.2 million in 1997 to 16.6 million in 2005/06 but declined marginally by 1.2% to 16.4 million in 2015 /16. What is more, the progress in poverty reduction variessignificantly across the country. Although the incidence of poverty stands at 36.1% nationally, over 50% of the population is living below the national poverty line in 10 counties.
The government’s commitments to end poverty and reduce inequality are enshrined in Kenya’s long-term development blueprint – Vision203012 and its rolling five-year mediumterm plans. The goal of Vision 2030 for ending poverty and inequality is to reduce the number of people living in absolute poverty to the smallest proportion of the total population. This will be achieved through investments in development projects that promote economic growth and create job opportunities so that citizens have a level of income sufficient to cater for the basic requirements of a healthy and productive life. Also, equity will be promoted through policies aimed at improving availability and equitable access to basic services such as health, education, water and sanitation for all Kenyans.
The first and second medium-term plans of Vision 2030 that covered the periods 2008– 2012 and 2013–2017 respectively, focused on expanding education, health, water and sanitation, social protection programmes, and empowerment of women, youth and disabled people. They also promoted investment in key sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing and tourism to create employment opportunities. These plans informed the priorities of national budgets between 2008 and 2017.
In 2018/19, the government will roll out the third medium-term plan (2018–2022), which will be driven by the Big Four Agenda. Under this agenda, the government aims to achieve by 2022: an increase in the share of manufacturing in national GDP to 15%; food security and improved nutrition; universal health coverage; and construction of at least 500,000 affordable houses.13 Investment in these four areas will be ring-fenced and prioritised in annual budgets over the medium term to spur economic growth, alleviate poverty and catalyse creation of job opportunities. For this to be achieved, quality data on needs and resource requirement must be made available to decision-makers and used in planning and budgeting so that resources are channelled to where they are most needed.
The involvement of men and Women in percentage in Agriculture with access to financial services
|– Total number of men engaged in agriculture, NtAgM
|– Total number women engaged in agriculture, NtAgW
|1. Total number of men and women engaged in agriculture, NtAg = NtAgM + NtAgW
|– Number of men engaged in agriculture that have access to financial services, NfsAgM
|– Number of women engaged in agriculture that have access to financial services, NfsAgW
|2. Number of men and women engaged in agriculture that have access to financial services, NfsAg = NfsAgM + NfsAgW
|Proportion of men and women engaged in agriculture with access to financial services, is : ţAgFst = 100 x NfsAg / NtAg
The level of access to extension services by farmers in percentages in the country
- Specific actions taken so far for the target:
- group approach of extension
- use of mobile phones to get agricultural information
- Achievements onaccess to quality agricultural advisory services:
|1. Number of farmers having access to Agricultural Advisory Services, NFAgAS
|2. Total Number of farmers, NF
|Proportion of farmers having access to Agricultural Advisory Services (%),
AFAgAS = 100 x(NFAgAS/NF)
- Sources of verification and other specific comments:
– Ministry of Agriculture,Livestock and Fisheries, Department of Extension
The level of Post- Harvest Losses (PHL) in the country,
FAO defines PHL as measurable losses in edible food mass (quantity) or nutritional value (quality) of food intended for human consumption. The post-harvest system comprises a range of interconnected activities, from the time of harvest through processing, marketing, preparation, and finally consumption decisions at the consumer level. Each year, large quantities of food are wasted or lost at each of these stages during their journey to consumers. According to an FAO-commissioned study, around one third (1.3 billion tonnes) of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted globally each year.
The access, utilization and ownership of agricultural land with secure land rights especially to women
Land tenure determines who can use land, for how long, and under what conditions. Tenure arrangements may be based both on official laws and policies, and on informal customs. If those arrangements are secure, users of land have an incentive not just to implement best practices for their use of it (paying attention to, say, environmental impacts), but also to invest more
The level growth of Agriculture labor productivity and the value growth of Agriculture trade in percentage
- The level of food import (wheat, sugar, rice, maize, edible oil, fish and others) in dollar value in the past two financial years.
- The level of children Stunting, Waste and Malnutrition in the country against the Malabo goal of 10%
Using the FAO undernourishment indicator (the proportion of the population not able to meet their energy
requirement over a one year period) to reflect food security, Kenya has been able to reduce the prevalence
of undernourishment from 32 percent in 1990-1992 to 23 percent in 2010-2012 (FAO, 2015). Micronutrient deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are still common, and 49 percent of children 6-23 months were reported to be vitamin A deficient in 2013 despite the country having a national vitamin A supplementation programme. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and overweight for children under five have decreased over the past 15 years (Figure 4.1) and Kenya is said to be on course to meeting the five World Health Assembly targets used by the Global Nutrition Report (GNR) to track progress (IFPRI, 2016). However, only 22 percent of all children 6-23 months old had their minimum acceptable diet met based on the 2014 KDHS (KDHS, 2014). Kenya faces a double burden of malnutrition characterized by the fact that although progress is being made on reducing child undernutrition, 33 percent of women of reproductive age were reported to be overweight or obese, with the prevalence being higher in urban settings (KDHS, 2014). For example, overweight or obesity prevalence was as high as 48 percent in Nairobi, the capital city. The nutrition status profile of the country therefore warrants action in the agriculture sector to contribute to addressing malnutrition in all its forms.
Figure: Prevalence of under-five nutrition indicators from 1998 to 2014 in Kenya
- The level of creation for job opportunities for the youth in agriculture value chains and preferential entry and participation by women and youth in gainful and attractive agribusiness
- Progress towards ensuring at least 30% of farm, pastoral, and fisher households are resilient to climate and weather related risks.
- Full contacts of the CAADP Focal persons/team, Minister, Deputy, Permanent Secretary, agriculture parliamentary committee, Committee Clerk.
Adan Ali Sheikh is the new chairman of the National Assembly’s Agriculture Committee following his election by members of the committee. The Mandera East MP takes over from Moiben MP Silas Tiren. The committee’s role is to consider all matters relating to agriculture, irrigation, livestock, fisheries development and veterinary services.
- The Hon. Adan Haji Ali, MP -Chairperson
- The Hon. Emmanuel Wangwe, MP – Vice Chairperson
- The Hon. Silas KipkoechTiren, MP
- The Hon. Yegon Brighton Leonard, MP
- The Hon. Gabriel KagoMukuha, MP
- The Hon. MaisonLeshoomo, MP
- The Hon. John Paul Mwirigi, MP
- The Hon. JohnMutunga, MP
- The Hon. Adan Haji Yussuf, MP
- The Hon. Francis MunyuaWaititu, MP
- The Hon. Janet JepkemboiSitienei, MP
- The Hon. Daniel KamurenTuitoek, MP
- The Hon. Fred Ouda, MP
- The Hon. Florence Mutua, MP
- The Hon. Simba Paul Arati, MP
- The Hon. Joyce Kamene, MP
- The Hon. Justus MakokhaMurunga, MP
- The Hon. Ferdinand Wanyonyi, MP