Tanzania: NATIONAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (NCDS) 2020 – 2030

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE

NATIONAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (NCDS) 2020 – 2030

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE

NATIONAL CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (NCDS) 2020 – 2030

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………….. vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………… ix

CHAPTER ONE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

  1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    1. Background……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    1. Layout and Approaches…………………………………………………………………………………… 3
    1. The Purpose of the Strategy……………………………………………………………………………. 3

CHAPTER TWO…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

CHAPTER THREE…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

CHAPTER FIVE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44

CHAPTER 6……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53

APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

Appendix 1: Major Cassava Growing Regions in Tanzania…………………………………… 56

Appendix 2: Area under Cassava Production, and Cassava Production and Productivity from 2005/06 – 2018/2019………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

Appendix 3: Current Cassava Production and Projections per Region………………. 58

Appendix 4: List of Initiatives in the Cassava Sub – sector………………………………….. 59

Appendix 5: List of Released Cassava Varieties……………………………………………………. 61

Appendix 6: Quarterly Monitoring Sheet………………………………………………………………… 62

Appendix 7: Quarterly Activity Monitoring Sheet………………………………………………….. 62

Appendix 8:  Strategy Implementation Plan…………………………………………………………… 63

FOREWORD

Cassava is the third most important staple food crop in Tanzania after maize and rice. About 1.9 million stakeholders are involved in cassava production and/or other businesses along the entire cassava value chain. Although there are great opportunities for cassava commercialization in Tanzania, these are hindered by fluctuating annual fresh cassava production and productivity which have been ranging from four to eight million tons per hectare. The average annual productivity ranges from 3.5 tons per hectare to 8.5 tons per hectare.

Factors contributing to such low production and productivity include low application of improved technologies along the value chain. Other factors are infestation of pests and diseases; unreliable rainfall due to climatic changes; low levels of investment into cassava sub-sector; inadequate markets and limited market information amongst stakeholders. In addition, there is limited diversification and expansion of cassava utilization into new growth markets which is an opportunity for increasing production, processing and supply system. Inadequate coordination has also negatively impacted the performance of the cassava sub-sector.

Despite these narrated challenges, cassava has great potential in terms of food and nutrition security, income generation and provision of industrial raw materials. There are still untapped or dormant markets in the country such as use of cassava products in textile, breweries, pharmaceuticals and animal feed industries, biscuit factories, bio-ethanol and other food    and non-food cassava-based products. The potential and possibility of utilizing cassava as a food and nutrition security and income-generating crop has prompted the government, non- governmental organizations and private sector to promote it. Similar to other crops, cassava has strong linkages with non-farm sectors through agro-processing, transportation, urban markets and export trade.

Therefore, the National Cassava Development Strategy provides strategic interventions that focus on increasing current production by three folds in line with product quality improvement that responds to the growing demand. The strategy aims at contributing to the implementation of major commitments outlined in the National Agriculture Policy (2013) and the second phase of the comprehensive Agricultural Sector Development Program (ASDP II) towards transformation of the agricultural sector. The key expected outcomes from this strategy will includes increased production and productivity; increased adoption of improved technologies along the cassava value chain; improved cassava marketing and related infrastructures; employment creation and overall economic growth.

In this regard, I call upon all cassava value chain actors, policymakers and development partners to join hands in the implementation of the National Cassava Development Strategy (2020 – 2030) towards improvement of the cassava sub-sector to sufficiently contribute to the National Development Goals.

Gerald M. Kusaya

PERMANENT SECRETARY

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ARIAgricultural Research Institute
ASAAgricultural Seed Agency
ASDPAgricultural Sector Development Program
ASDSAgricultural Sector Development Strategy
ASLMAgricultural Sector Lead Ministries
CAMARTECCentre for Agricultural Mechanisation and Rural Technology
CAVACassava Adding Value for Africa
CBOsCommunity Based Organizations
CBSDCassava Brown Streak Disease
CMDCassava Mosaic Disease
COSTECHCommission for Science and Technology
CAADPComprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program
CBBCassava Bacterial Blight
DADPsDistrict Agricultural Development Plans
DAICODistrict Agriculture, Irrigation and Cooperatives Officer
DRCDemocratic Republic of Congo
FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FFSFarmer Field Schools
FRGFarmer Research Groups
GAPsGood Agricultural Practices
GDPGross Domestic Product
HQCFHigh Quality Cassava Flour
IITAInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture
LGAsLocal Government Authorities
MATIsMinistry of Agriculture Training Institutes
MEDAMennonite Economic Development Associates
MKUKUTAMkakati wa Kupunguza Umaskini na Kukuza Uchumi Tanzania
MoAMinistry of Agriculture
NCDSNational Cassava Development Strategy
NCSCNational Cassava Steering Committee
NGOsNon-Governmental Organizations
NSGRPNational Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
PO-RALGPresident Office – Regional Administration and Local Government
PPPPublic Private Partnership
QDSQuality Declared Seed
SADECSouthern African Development Executive Committee
SDGsSustainable Development Goals
SIDOSmall Industries Development Organization
SWOCStrengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Challenges
TACAPPATanzania Cassava Producers and processors Association
TAFSIPAgricultural and Food Security Investment Plan of 2011
TBSTanzania Bureau of Standards
TFNCTanzania Food and Nutrition Center
TICTanzania Investment Center
TNDPTanzania National Development Plan
TIRDOTanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization
TOSCITanzania Official Seed Certification Institute
UNIDOUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The formulation of this National Cassava Development Strategy (NCDS) involved a number  of stakeholders from both public institutions and the Private sector. Special thanks goes to the technical team in the Directorate of Crop Development at the Ministry of Agriculture and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for their financial support at various stages of development of the NCDS. Special thanks go to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA) for their valuable inputs and financial support through the “Building Economically Sustainable Cassava Seed Systems in Tanzania” (BEST – Cassava) project. This includes co-organizing the final stakeholder’s workshops and supporting final editing and printing costs.

Appreciation and recognition also go to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Presidents’ Office Regional Adminstration and Local Government (PO- RALG), Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute (TOSCI), Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania Trade Development Authority (TANTRADE), Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center (TFNC), Tanzania Private Sector Foundation (TPSF), Tanzania Cassava Producer and Processors Association (TACAPPA) and Cassava Value Chain Actors who provided valuable inputs during the development of the strategy.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Photo 1: Farmers holding improved high-yielding cassava varieties (Credit: IITA)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is mainly used as food and for income generation. In 2019 about 54.7% of the world cassava production was produced from Africa with Nigeria contributing about 20.9%of the total worlds’ production. Tanzania produced about 5% of the total production in Africa and ranked in sixth position after Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ghana, Angola and Mozambique. The country annual production ranges from 4 to 8.2 million tons in 2016/2017 and 2018/2019 respectively.

There are great opportunities for cassava commercialization in Tanzania attributed to among others, the presence of vast and suitable land, improved varieties (high-yielding, drought and disease tolerant varieties), favorable weather conditions, growing population and possibility of diverse utilization in animal feed, confectioneries, paper industries, pharmaceutical and textile industries.

The National Cassava Development Strategy (NCDS) aims at transforming cassava into modernized, commercialized and profitable sub-sector for food and nutrition security and income generation. It provides a strategic framework that facilitates and supports co-coordinated implementation of interventions regarding cassava development to tap into the untapped opportunities. In addition, it will facilitate the use of improved technologies along the value chain to boost cassava production and increase productivity from an average of 8.3 tons per hectare (2018/2019) to 16 t/ha hectare and triple the current production from 8.2 to 24 million tons by 2030.

Increased production will result from cassava intensification and minimal land expansion. Land under cassava production is expected to increase from 0.99 to 1.5 million hectares, and cassava value chain actors from 1.9 to 2.2 million by 2030.

Further, the market segment will be strengthened to create a pull effect and sustainability of the sub-sector. Major focus will be on expansion of domestic industrial use of cassava and cassava products by establishing high value processing plants (starch plants); promote wheat substitution with High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF); reduction of starch importation and diverse use of cassava products in animal feed, confectionaries and textile industries. Similarly, great effort will be placed on exportation of finished and/ or value added products.

Therefore, the NCDS goals will be achieved through implementation of a number of strategic objectives and activities in a coordinated manner in which all actor along the value chain will have a role to play. The strategic objectives include:

  1. Strengthen and facilitate cassava research and development;
    1. Strengthen the capacity of public and private institutions responsible for technology development, extension services and training;
    1. Increase cassava production, productivity and profitability;
    1. Strengthen and promote the use of improved agricultural mechanization technologies in cassava production;
    1. Improve availability and accessibility of cassava seed and other Inputs;
    1. Facilitate and strengthen cassava post-harvest management, product development and value addition;
    1. Strengthen and facilitate phytosanitary services to manage pest risk and for compliance with international trade requirements;
    1. Promote and facilitate cassava commercialization in Tanzania;
    1. Strengthen cassava products market and marketing infrastructure;
    1. Strengthen cassava related policy and coordination among cassava stakeholders along the value chain;
    1. Strengthen access to financial services by cassava value chain actors; and
    1. Strengthen the availability and accessibility of robust cassava data along the value chain.

The NCDS will be implemented in two phases with phase one commencing from 2020 to 2025 and second phase from 2026 to 2030. Major implementors and financier of   the NCDS include government ministries and institutions, private sector institutions, development partners, farmers, processors, traders and service providers.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0.       INTRODUCTION

1.1.       Background

Cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) is a perennial, vegetatively propagated shrub, grown throughout the lowland tropics. Given its relatively high production potential in marginal soils and low rainfall, it is a basic food crop in areas prone to drought. Cassava is one of the world’s important carbohydrate and calorie crops, with annual global production of approximately 282,734,763 million tons (FAOSTAT  2018) with African countries accounting for a majority    of the global production. For instance, in 2017, Africa produced approximately 151.98 million tons (54.7%) of the global production. The top ten cassava producing countries are:- Nigeria, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Brazil, Ghana, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Mozambique (FAOSTAT, 2018, FAO Food Outlook, 2018). In 2018, Tanzania produced about 8.4 million tons of fresh cassava roots, accounting 2.9% of the global production and 5.39% of the total production in Africa.

The leading exporters of cassava worldwide are Thailand, Costa Rica, Lao Peoples’ Democratic Republic, Vietnam, Netherlands (re-export), Indonesia, Portugal, India and Cambodia. In 2019, these countries exported cassava products worth 827.7million USD which is 98% of the global value as shown in Figure 1a below. Nigeria although the world largest producer of cassava with approximately 20% share (Otekunrin, O.A. and Sawicka, B., 2019), it exported cassava products valued at less than $2 million compared to Thailand which had highest export valued at $1.02 billion. The average market share were approximately Thailand (71%) followed by Vietnam (16%), Costa Rica (6%), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (5%), Cambodia (1%) and the rest contributed less than one percent of the export volume (Figure 1b).

Figure 1a: Export values of cassava products for the top ten exporting countries worldwide in 2019.

Figure 1b: Average Global Export Share 2019. Source: ITC, 2020

In Latin America, cassava is used as an ingredient in various traditional dishes while in Asian countries, very little of cassava is used for human consumption and most of it is processed into chips, pellets, starch and starch derivatives. In most of the African countries, cassava is considered to be a staple food and only a smaller part is processed and used as animal feed and for starch production. The world’s largest consumers of cassava are Nigeria (20%), China (13%), Indonesia (9%) and Brazil (8%) of the global production (Food outlook, 2017).

In Tanzania, the major cassava producing zones are Southern, Eastern, Western and Lake Zones which together produce about 80% of the total cassava produced in the country. It is ranked as set by user, the third crop after maize and paddy in the food security context where 80% of the total production is used for human consumption (Kapinga et al. 1998).

The potential and possibility of utilizing cassava as food and nutrition security and income earning crop has prompted the government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector to promote it. Like in other crops, cassava has strong linkages with non-farm sectors through agro-processing, transportation, urban markets and export trade. However, the majority of stakeholders involved along the cassava value chain are not organized; neither do they have any agency that exerts any form of control over producers, processors and marketers. Buyers are mainly middlemen and there are no forums for the producers to discuss marketing issues and collectively bargain for better prices and as a result, demand and supply of cassava products has not always matched. For the cassava crop to contribute significantly to industrial development, there is a need to develop a strong mechanism for management and coordination that will ensure all sectoral ministries, agencies, private sector and other stakeholders in the value chain are actively involved.

1.2.       Layout and Approaches

The Cassava Development Strategy comprises of six (6) Chapters. Chapter one which is the introduction, addresses background, purpose and layout of the strategy document. Chapter two presents the situation analysis along the value chain and a summary of SWOC analysis. Chapter three covers the major planning frameworks in relation to agriculture while chapter four explains the strategic interventions which covers key interventions in the ten-year period, vision, mission statements, overall objective, strategic objectives, strategies, targets and performance indicators. Chapter five deals with the implementation, monitoring and evaluation and the sixth chapter is on sustainability and environmental issues.

The NCDS is a stakeholder-driven document resulting from increasing demand for cassava investment along the value chain. Stakeholders from both the public and private sectors were involved during the process of formulating the strategy. The Ministry of Agriculture being the custodian and coordinator, organized and incorporated inputs from the stakeholders that enabled preparation of the strategy.

1.3.       The Purpose of the Strategy

Despite of its low scale of production, cassava is one of the important food and nutrition security crop as well as for income generation. The crop has diverse uses and therefore, can contribute significantly to industrialization of the economy. The Agricultural Sector Development Program Phase Two (ASDP II) remains a vehicle for implementing and transforming the agricultural sector in the country with priorities focusing on enhancing agricultural productivity and profitability, commercialization and value addition. Moreover, the Agricultural Marketing Policy (2008) recognizes that agricultural marketing is adversely affected by inadequate marketing infrastructure, poor market-orientation, limited linkages within the marketing system, processing and production chains and competitiveness.

Although the current policy environment is receptive to commercialization and industrialization of the agricultural sector, the current agriculture strategies have not paid adequate attention  to sustainable development of the cassava crop sub-sector. Therefore, it is imperative that agricultural strategies put great emphasis on the crop due to its uniqueness in responding to climate change, food and nutrition security and as a source of raw materials for industries.

The growing international demand for high value cassava products for food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and textile industries provides untapped domestic and export opportunity for the country. According to FAO-Food outlook report (2016), international flows of cassava have been hugely dependent on industrial and feed demand particularly from China, the world’s leading cassava importer. It is within this context, that the need for having a National Cassava Development Strategy (NCDS) focusing on improving the environment for sustainable cassava commercialization was conceptualized.

The purpose of the NCDS is therefore, to create an enabling environment for improving       the performance of the cassava sub-sector through application of improved technologies, strengthening human and capital resources, increasing productivity and profitability of cassava, creating employment opportunities, spurring rural development and developing agro-industries. Additionally, the strategy also focuses on improving coordination mechanisms of actors to ensure all sector lead ministries, agencies, private sector, development partners and other stakeholders in the value chain are fully engaged. However, the strategy will build on other on-going global, regional and national initiatives to create synergies for agricultural sector development.

A researcher prepares samples of cassava leaves for analysis of viruses (Credit: IITA)

CHAPTER TWO

2.0.                   SITUATION ANALYSIS

This chapter gives an overview on the importance of cassava to the national food and nutrition security and economic growth, status of production, constraints to production and productivity, processing, utilization, marketing and marketing infrastructure. The chapter also provides highlights on the export and import of cassava and its products.

2.1.                   Status of Cassava Production in Tanzania

Cassava is grown in almost all the agro-ecological zones in the country as a food security crop. According to the Annual Agriculture Sample Survey (AASS) 2016/2017 report, the crop is grown by more than 1.9 million farmers on a total of 853,015 ha of small plots of land averaging

0.4 ha per household. However, there are few large-scale farmers with more than 20 ha.

The major cassava producing areas are Lake Zone, Southern Zone, Western Zone and Eastern zones. In the Lake Zone, cassava is mainly grown in Mwanza, Geita, Mara, Kagera, Simiyu and Shinyanga regions; Southern Zone in Lindi, Mtwara and Ruvuma regions; Western Zone in Kigoma region and in Eastern Zone in Morogoro, Tanga and Coast regions. Land suitability for cassava across the country at different levels is shown in Appendix 1. Cassava production and productivity for the last 10 years from 2008/2009 to 2017/2018 has been fluctuating (Figure 2). The lowest cassava production recorded was about 4.02 million tons in 2016/2017 and  the highest was 8.4 million tons in 2017/2018. The highest productivity was 8.5 tons/ha in 2017/2018 and lowest 3.35 tons/ha in 2016/2017 (Appendix 2).

The low yield is attributed to, among others, both biotic and abiotic factors such as disease, climate change, use of low-yielding planting materials, low soil fertility and low uptake of recommended agronomic practices. Appendix 3 shows the current cassava production (2018/2019), and projections for 2024/2025 and 2029/2030. Highest projections are observed in six (6) Regions (Kigoma, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pwani, Kagera and Ruvuma – in that order) with above one million tons fresh cassava in both 2024/2025 and 2029/2030.

Figure 2: Area, production and productivity of fresh cassava 2008/2009 to 2017/2018.

Source: MoA, 2019

The average productivity of fresh cassava for the past 12 years is six tons per hectare which is 25% of the potential productivity of 25 tons per hectare. However, the current improved varieties have potential yield ranging from 12 to 50.8 t/ha (Appendix 5).

In Nigeria (the world leading cassava producer), average productivity decreased from 11.2 (2007) to 8.76 t/ha (2017) whereas area under production increased from 3.87 million ha in 2007 to 6.79 million ha in 2017. Hence, the increased production of up to 59.5 million tons is a result of area expansion. In Cambodia productivity increased from 12 t/ha in 2003 to 20t/ha in 2013.

Cassava production in Tanzania is less mechanized regardless of its labour intensive in activities such as planting, weeding, harvesting and peeling. Most small-scale farmers are using hand hoe and few are using tractors during land preparation. Inadequate access and use of appropriate technologies to support such activities contributes to low scale of production and elevated costs of production per unit area.

Photo 2a (Above): Cassva pressing machines. Photo 2b (below): A woman operating a cassava grating machine (Credit: IITA)

2.2.                   Cassava Consumption

Most of the cassava in Tanzania is either consumed as fresh roots or as traditionally processed product. The per capita consumption of cassava is 157 kg per year based on the 2012 population census. The estimated annual domestic demand of dry cassava for food security is approximately 2.2 million tons equivalent to 6.6 tons of fresh cassava (National Food Security Forecast report, 2018). For decades, cassava is mainly grown as food security crop and is mostly processed into flour to make stiff porridge (ugali), snacks, biscuits or eaten as raw boiled or fried. In 2017/2018, Cassava contributed 17% of the National Food Basket after maize. Apart from the roots, traditionally cassava leaves are also consumed as leafy vegetable (kisamvu); the leaves have high content of protein, minerals and vitamins. Leaves are sold by vendors in the streets as one of the sources of income in many places in the country. Some limited amount of cassava leaves are being processed and used for making confectionaries and livestock feeds. Most of what is produced is used for human consumption and limited amount for export

and animal feed.

Photo 3: Packed cassava leafy vegetable (kisamvu). (Credit: MoA)

In Tanzania,  there is limited use of cassava and its products unlike in other countries where   it is processed to various products such as glucose syrup, bio-ethanol, biodegradable plastic, plywood and paperboard adhesives.

2.3.                       Research and Development

Cassava research activities are under the mandate of the Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) in collaboration with the Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH), Sokoine University of Agriculture, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute (TOSCI), Centre for Agriculture Mechanization and Rural Technology (CAMARTEC), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA).

TARI has seven research stations dealing with cassava technology development namely Kibaha, Mikocheni, Hombolo, Ukiriguru, Naliendele, Tumbi and Maruku. By 2019, a total of 25 improved varieties that are high yielding, drought and disease tolerant, have been officially released through various breeding programs (Appendix 5). Despite such efforts, limited farmers are using improved varieties. A study conducted by the Association for Strengthening Agricultural

Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) in 2014, revealed that only about 5%     of seeds used in Tanzania are certified and these are particularly of cereals. At that period, cassava seed certification was optional as per Seed Act No. 18 of 2003.

There are a number of ongoing and recently accomplished cassava research initiatives namely; Commercially sustainable, quality-assured cassava seed distribution system (locally known as Muhogo Mbegu Bingwa), New cassava varieties and clean seeds to combat CMD and CBSD project (5CP), Community phyto-sanitation, Building an economically sustainable seed system in Tanzania for cassava (BEST Cassava); African cassava agronomy initiative (ACAI); Cassava adding value for Africa (CAVA) and Next generation cassava breeding (NextGen). These initiatives focus on breeding programs, improving cassava seed systems, better application  of agronomic practices in cassava production and value addition and marketing in order to address the bottlenecks of low production and productivity (Appendix 4).

Photo 4: Technician transplanting tissue culture cassava plantlets under Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponic (SAH) technology. (Credit: IITA)

2.4.                   Cassava Seed Systems

Cassava seed systems in Tanzania are characterized by semi-formal, formal and informal system. Under an informal seed system, farmers get planting materials (cuttings) from their own farms or neighbors without proper quality control mechanisms. In a semi-formal seed

system, cassava planting materials are produced by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and selected individual farmers or farmer groups identified for cassava planting materials (seed) multiplication without formal registration. The formal seed system involves official registration of seed producers by Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute (TOSCI) and quality control following the established cassava seed certification protocol.

Currently, the Agricultural Seed Agency (ASA), AMINATA Seed Company in Tanga, Techgrow Services Ltd in Chalinze – Coast region, Kakindo Farm in Kagera and another 456 trained cassava seed entrepreneurs under BEST cassava project, are taking part in quality cassava planting material production. Based on TOSCI data, registered cassava planting material multiplication farms for production of Pre-basic (PB), Basic (B), certified (C) and Quality Declared Seeds (QDS) classes have increased from 102.2 ha in 2015 to 398.85 ha in 2020 where large proportion of land is under QDS (Figure 3). It is estimated that approximately 30,000 cassava farmers have accessed cassava planting materials through formal channels.

Photo 5: Inspectors assessing a field growing cassava quality declared (QDS) seeds (Credit: IITA)

The registered farms in 2020 have the potential to produce approximately 40.96 million cuttings per year enough to plant 4,096 ha, which is less than one percent of the area under cassava production for the 2018/2019 season. On the other hand, there is a total of 160 trained authorized

seed inspectors nation-wide, out of which 110 have been trained on cassava planting materials inspection skills. The national target is to train two authorized seed inspectors per district (there are 185 districts council in the country) and hence the current deficit is about 240 inspectors.

Figure 3: Proportion of Land under Formal Cassava Seed System. Source:TOSCI

2.5.                   Postharvest Management and Value Addition

The role of postharvest management of freshly harvested cassava root is essential, owing to the rapid physiological deterioration of the root soon after harvest. The root can be processed into different forms for human consumption, animal feed and as industrial raw materials for paper, textiles and alcoholic drinks (Falade and Akingbala 2010). However, utilization of cassava root in food and other industrial applications is limited by the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), which reduces its shelf life and degrades its quality attributes (Sánchez et al. 2006).

In Tanzania, cassava processing is dominated by small-scale processors concentrated in Eastern, Southern and Lake Zones. Cassava is mostly processed manually with limited use  of improved processing technologies such as cassava chipper, grater, presser and milling machine. Few entrepreneurs have started processing cassava into High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) as they are facing challenges in obtaining good quality chips and grits to meet the required standards and volumes due to low use of improved processing technologies and volume of production.

However, the quality of chips and grits are highly influenced by kind of drying facilities, water quality, type of processing equipment and storage facilities. For instance, it has been reported that, the use of solar drier was efficient and enhance quality of the products when compared

to open sun-drying method (CAVA, 2012 report). Most of the small-scale processors use unimproved drying facilities, such as raised platforms, mats or on the ground surfaces compared to medium scale processors who are using advanced drying facilities like flash drier and solar driers.

Photo 6: Cassava mobile grater. (Credit: IITA)

Photo 7: Drying grated cassava on raised platforms in the sun to make high quality cassava flour (Credit: IITA)

Currently, there is no large-scale cassava starch producing plant operating in the country. One established in the 1980’s failed due to inconsistent supply of cassava as raw materials. Therefore, industries import large quantities of starch despite the huge existing potential for producing starch from cassava roots. For instance, between 2013 and 2017 Tanzania imported a total of 25.9 thousand tons of starch worth approximately TZS 23.24 billion. Such amount could be saved or used to improve the local starch processing and eventually improve the income of cassava producers. However, some efforts from the private sector are underway to re-establish such industries in Lindi, Tanga and Coast Regions.

2.6.                   Marketing and Market Potential

Cassava and its products are mostly marketed within the country for food and very little for industrial use and export. The available data indicate that Tanzania exports cassava and its products to countries such as Burundi, DRC, Rwanda, Botswana, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Mozambique, Kenya, Uganda and China. According to UnComtrade, between 2014 and 2017 Tanzania exported fresh or dried cassava valued at 19.51 million USD where the major importing countries were Rwanda, Burundi, China, United Arab Emirates and Netherlands (Table 1).

Table No. 1: Values in USD for Exported Fresh and Dried Cassava from Tanzania

YEARTOTAL VALUE IN USDVALUE USD (RWANDA DESTINATION)VALUE IN USD (BURUNDI DESTINATION)
20172M1.7M268K
20168.8M8.3M548K
20155.7M5.3M411K
20142.1M2.1M
2013911K604K292

Source: UnComrade Database

In Tanzania,  cassava and cassava products have no structured market; products are sold   on the open market, common shops and supermarkets for household consumption and very little for animal feed. However, there are untapped market opportunities that could enable the cassava subsector to grow. These include, high quality cassava flour for blending with cereal flour, glucose syrups, industrial alcohol, biodegradable plastics, plywood and cassava flour- based paperboard adhesives.

Despite of the existing market opportunities, there are a number of challenges which hinder the marketing of cassava and cassava products. The challenges include; poor quality of products, limited utilization of cassava and its by-products, inadequate market information systems and poor market infrastructure. In addition there is uncoordinated efforts of the stakeholders which

leads to inconsistence of supply of required products per specific market segment. Furthermore, price of cassava and cassava products is high, partly due to high transportation cost, inefficiency of postharvest management technologies, bulkiness and poor infrastructures in rural areas.

Photo 8: A farmer transporting cassava using a bicycle. (Credit:IITA)

Photo 9: Preparing ridges for planting cassava, one of the recommended good agronomic practices for the crop (Credit: IITA)

A study report by CAVA (2012) showed that, there are several potential uses of cassava which are not fully exploited in the country. Table 2 presents the potential demand for cassava -based products in different market segments over the short, medium and long – term. According to Bennett et al. (2012) the estimated potential long -term demand of cassava would be 530,000 to 640,000 MT/year of root equivalent if HQCF inclusion in industrially baked products (bread and biscuits) is done on voluntary basis; and at 570,000 to 720,000 MT/year in case HQCF inclusion is made mandatory by the Presidential Cassava Initiative. It was pointed out that wheat substitution levels with HQCF could range from 10% to 50% depending on the final product (FAO and IFAD 2004, Adebayo Abass et al. 2013). The potential demand would be even higher if a policy on blending maize flour with cassava flour is implemented.

Table 2: Potential demand for cassava based products by market segments in Tanzania

Market segmentCassava productCurrent de- mandShort term de- mand (t/annum)Long term demand (t/annum)
Wheat millsHQCF0017,500 – 35,000
BakeriesHQCFLimited150 – 3002,300 – 4,700
BiscuitsHQCF50 – 1001,000 – 2,0005,000 – 10,000
Home useHQCFLimited1,000 – 2,50011,000 – 25,000
Small-scale millsGrits/chipsLimited1,30050,000
Animal feedChips/grits10 – 151,00040,000 – 45,000
Clear beerImproved makopa001,000 – 2,400
Traditional beerImproved makopa090010,000 – 12,000
StarchFresh root00228,000

Source: Bennett et al. (2012)

2.7.                   Opportunities in Cassava Sub-sector

Tanzania has a great potential for the development of the cassava sub-sector as it has vast land suitable for production of the crop. There are a number of improved varieties with high yielding potential and disease tolerance, availability of technology dissemination channels and local farm machinery manufacturers. Other opportunities include political will, presence of trained researchers and ongoing cassava research and market opportunities at national, regional and international levels given the diverse uses of cassava (Figure 4). The lines indicate various opportunities for cassava commercialization. According to Lekule et al. (2006) cassava roots can replace 20 to 100 percent cereal-based energy in animal feed without adverse effects on performance if properly processed and diets balanced.

Figure 4: Diverse uses of Cassava

  • The Constraints/Challenges Facing Cassava Sub-Sector Development Cassava production is constrained by many challenges including; inadequate application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) which include low use of improved varieties, non and low

use of recommended fertilizer rates, improper plant spacing, poor weed control, inadequate

availability of quality planting materials, lack of effective surveillance and quarantine measures resulting into persistent pest and diseases outbreak. Although cassava is drought tolerant, adverse climatic changes have negative impacts on production of cassava particularly at early stages of field establishment.

Other challenges include; inadequate use of mechanization along the value chain; inadequate use of improved processing technologies; limited technical and business skills for actors along the value chain; access to markets and market information; high post-harvest losses; low quality of product; and poor coordination among stakeholders along the value chain.

Cassava commercialization in Tanzania is facing some challenges on access to finance and improved technologies. However, there are strengths and opportunities for the development  of the sub-Sector towards improved production and productivity, processing and trading. The table below summarizes the SWOC analysis for the cassava sub-sector in the country.

Table 3: Summarized SWOC analysis in cassava sub-sector

SWOC ANALYSIS IN CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR
CRITERIASTRENGTHSWEAKNESSESOPPORTUNITIESCHALLENGES
Production and productivityAvailability of improved cas- sava varieties for cultivationExistence of research and training insti- tutionsAvailability of arable land for cassava productionInadequate human and financial resources to disseminate improved technologiesInadequate linkage between farmers, extension and technologies developersLow adoption rate of good agricultural practices by cassava farmers Inadequacy of famers training centers with limited facilitiesPresence of enabling national policy environmentPresence of stakeholders platformsExistence of development partners willing to support cassava sub–sector along the value chainFinancial resources constraintFrequent weather changes affecting productionHigh level dependence on rainfed agricultureLow soil fertility
 Existence of documented GAPs tech- nologiesPolitical will to support cassava sub-sector developmentLimited use of improved technology in mechanization
 Presence of Ward Agricul- tural Re- source Cen- ters (WARCs)Presence of programs and initiatives to support cassava agronomy improvementPopulation growth and increased demand for cassava and cassava productsEmerging pests and diseasesPoor feeder road networkLarge number of unskilled labour force
  Available labour force 
  Existence of favorable weather conditions for cassava production 
Technology de- velopment and transferPresence of Agricultural Research Institutes (ARIs)   Existence of skilled, knowledgeable, and experienced research and extension staffInadequate modern facilities and equipment for research e.g. biotechnology   Quality analy- sis for cassa- va productsPolitical will and enabling environment   Available local, regional and international collaborators such as CIAT, IITA, AGRA, MEDA   Growing Private SectorInadequate resources to conduct extensive research   Frequent weather changes affecting field experiments   Inadequate irrigation infrastructure to support research
SWOC ANALYSIS IN CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR
CRITERIASTRENGTHSWEAKNESSESOPPORTUNITIESCHALLENGES
 Ongoing research programs to develop improved technology along the cassava value chain   Available released cassava varieties for up scalingInadequate integration of market demand aspects in breeding new varieties Weak linkage between research and extension Low adoption rate of improved technologyAvailability of local machinery manufacturers and artisans   Potential land for research   Presence of Local organizations for technology developmentInadequate knowledge and income to farmers
Seed systemsPresence of formal cassava seed system   Available seed technologies (TC laboratories, varieties, SAH)   Available quality control institute (TOSCI) and certification standardsLow availability and accessibility of quality planting materials   Inadequate resources for the production of Early Generation Seeds   Low participation of seed companiesPrivate sector inclusiveness in seed systems   Increasing demand for improved seeds   Presence of tissue culture laboratory   Plant protection act and regulations supporting phytosanitary measuresUnwillingness to pay for quality seeds by farmers   Low multiplication ratio (1:10)   Inadequate infrastructure to support massive seed multiplication
  Small scale cassava seed farms  
Post-harvest managementAvailability of processing technologies (chipping, grating, presser and solar drier)   Existence of Post-harvest management guidelines and training manualInadequate access to improved processing technologies by farmers (peeling machinery, drying technologies, storage and other related infrastructure)   Low quality of cassava commodityAvailability of potential markets for processed products   Political will to support value addition   Industrialization policy   Diversified uses of cassava productsInadequate capacity to cope with the demand of processed products   Limited access to finance for capital by farmers to invest in processing machines   Lack of large scale processing plant
SWOC ANALYSIS IN CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR
CRITERIASTRENGTHSWEAKNESSESOPPORTUNITIESCHALLENGES
 Availability of Cassava processing equipment manufacturerInadequacy of quality storage facilities Inadequate awareness on the use of standards   Limited  use of TBS mark by processors and product developers   High rates of electricity tariffs
Trade and mar- ketingPresence of phytosanitary protocol to allow market access for Cassava products   Presence of Registered companies for exporting cassava   Presence of Tanzania Investment Center (TIC)   Presence of Cooperative Societies   Presence of National coordination Ministries and Departments to facilitate international tradePoor coordination of cassava stakeholders (Traders, product developers)   Lack of large scale processing facilities and low quality products   Existence of several charges   Weak linkage between producers and marketPresence of Financial arrangements supporting agriculture (NMB, TIB, TADB)   Availability of transportation and communication infrastructures   Emergence of industries that use cassava products as raw materials   Increasing demand for cassava at National, Regional and International levelsInadequate quantity and quality of products   Unstable product price   Unstructured cassava marketing mechanism   Inadequate quality products aggregation centers   Change of preference
SWOC ANALYSIS IN CASSAVA SUB-SECTOR
CRITERIASTRENGTHSWEAKNESSESOPPORTUNITIESCHALLENGES
CoordinationGovernment – legal and regulatory framework   Existence of ASDP II program   Presence of Regional and International integrationExistence of Private sectors forumsInadequate harmonization of National, Regional and International frameworks   Fragmented and duplication of initiatives   Inadequate linkage among the leading MinistriesExistence of Regional and International integration   Existence of Cooperative Societies   Good Governance and political will   Existence of several cassava stakeholdersInadequate data and information on cassava initiatives along the value chain   Inadequacy of producers and processors platforms
  Less attention from cooperative societies on food crops  
  Weak cassava dialogue platforms  

Cassava roots infected with Cassava Brown Streak Disease (Credit: IITA)

CHAPTER THREE

3.0.       THE MAIN PLANNING FRAMEWORKS

Overview

Poverty reduction in the United Republic of Tanzania is guided by the Tanzania Development Vision 2025 and various development frameworks which collectively aim at developing and promoting transformational initiatives under various sectors including the agriculture sector. Some of the development frameworks include:- Long Term Perspective Plan, the Second Five Year Development Plan 2016-2021, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); National Agriculture Policy of 2013; Agricultural Sector Development Program Phase II (ASDP II); the Cooperative Development Policy of 2002; the Small and Medium Enterprises Policy of 2003; the National Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy of 2009; Tanzania Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plan (TAFSIP 2011) and the ruling Party Manifesto (2015-2020 and 2020- 2025).

3.1.       Tanzania Development Vision 2025

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 explains the long-term national objectives of attaining economic development through high quality livelihood, peace, stability and unity, good governance, a well-educated learning society and a competitive economy capable of producing sustainable and shared benefits.

3.2.       National Agriculture Policy (2013)

The National Agriculture Policy (NAP,  2013) aims at developing an efficient, competitive  and profitable agriculture industry that contributes to the improvement of the livelihoods of Tanzanians and attainment of broad-based economic growth and poverty alleviation. The policy emphasises on commercialization of crops through increased application of improved technologies to enhance production, productivity and competitiveness in crop development including cassava, to take advantage of existing comparative and competitive advantages of agricultural produce.

3.3.       Agricultural Sector Development Plan Phase II (ASDP II) 2018-2028

The program’s objective is to transform subsistence smallholders into sustainable commercial farmers by enhancing and activating sector drivers and support to increase productivity and profitability of targeted commodities. The program facilitates and support sustainable water and land management; productivity and profitability; commercialization and value addition and improves sector enablers. Cassava is among the priority crops in the implementation of the

ASDP II whereby more efforts are concentrated to increasing production, processing and marketing.

3.4.       The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS)

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are inter-governmental agreed set of targets relating to international development. The SDGs transitioned from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and builds on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. They also recognise that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions including extreme poverty is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. Goals 2 and 8 are particularly relevant for inclusive development of the agricultural sector. Goal 2 commits to “achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture”. The implementation of the National Cassava Development Strategy will complement the realization of SDG 2.

3.5.       Ruling Party Manifesto (2015-2020 and 2020-2025)

The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) policies perspective is rooted on implementation of the Tanzania Development Vision 2025. Generally, CCM Election Manifesto of 2015-2020 is addressing government commitment to meet the main development goals of transforming agriculture from subsistence to commercial farming. The intention being to increase production and productivity for national food and nutritional security, strengthen economic growth, and catalysing industrialization to enable the country to reach the “middle income countries” level. Increasing production and productivity of cassava will enhance national food and nutrition security and complement the implementation of the Ruling Party Manifesto.

3.6.       Small and Medium Enterprise Development Policy (SMES ) 2003

SMEs Development Policy aims to promote income generating activities and support diversification of private sector activities in the context of the agricultural sector. This includes creating  commercial opportunities in marketing and processing of agricultural products.   The implementation of the National Cassava Development Strategy will complement the implementation of SMEs policy since most of farmers who engage in cassava production, processing and marketing are SMEs.

3.7.       Cooperative Development Policy (2002)

The policy objectives aimed at encouraging establishment and continuous operation of member-owned and member-controlled cooperatives that are economically strong and capable of operating as viable independent business entities. The policy also recognizes and supports small producer group initiatives including cassava farmers with the view of transforming them into future economically strong cooperatives. The implementation of NCDS objective number nine is in line with the implementation of the Cooperative Development Policy.

3.8.       Other Development Frameworks

Other frameworks includes the Seed Act of 2003 and its amendment of 2014 where seed and propagated materials (cassava planting material) are regulated; Plant Health Act of 2020

which regulate plant and plant products phytosanitary issues including restriction of movement of infected planting materials from one area to another; the Second Five Year Development Plan- FYDP II (2016/17-2020/21) which emphasizes on nurturing industrialization for economic transformation and human development; the Tanzania Agricultural and Food Security Investment Plan of 2011 (TAFSIP), Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) and Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) which is the continental framework for African countries to achieve social economic growth and food security through transformation of the agricultural sector.

Therefore, this strategy is in line with a number of policies, strategies and programs and is centered on key strategic issues along the cassava value chain. The strategic issues are cassava research and development, production and productivity, post-harvest management and value addition, technology transfer, cassava commercialization, markets and marketing infrastructure, capacity building and coordination of cassava sub-sector initiatives as elaborated in chapter four.

Training bakers to substitute wheat flour with cassava flour in their baked products such as bread and cookies (Credit: IITA)

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0.                 STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS

Overview

This chapter presents critical issues, vision, mission, overall objective, strategic interventions, targets and indicators to be achieved in a ten-year period (2020 – 2030). Detailed implementation plan is shown in Appendix 6.

4.1.                  Critical Issues

The situational analysis identified some constraints and critical issues which hinder cassava development in the country. The issues identified are;

  1. Low production and productivity
    1. Inadequate postharvest management and value addition technologies
    1. Limited markets and marketing infrastructures
    1. Limited institutional coordination
    1. Inadequate access to financial services

4.2.                      Vision

A modernized, commercialized, highly productive and profitable cassava sub-sector that sustainably contribute to food and nutrition security and wealth creation.

4.3.                  Mission

A transformed cassava sub-sector from subsistence to commercial through creation of enabling environment and application of improved technologies.

4.4.                  Overall Objective

To provide a strategic framework that will promote and facilitate coordinated implementation of interventions regarding cassava development to ensure food and nutrition security and income generation.

4.4.1.          Strategic Objectives

In view of the identified critical issues, 12 strategic objectives were formulated under five major themes as well as the targets and key performance indicators that focus on transforming the cassava sub-sector by 2030.

4.4.2.          Description of the Strategic Objectives (SO) Theme 1: Research for Development

SO 1: Strengthen and Facilitate Research and Development

Rationale

A number of cassava research initiatives supported by the Government of Tanzania, international organizations and development partners have led to the development of improved varieties, using conventional and modern biotechnology protocols, that are high yielding; tolerant to diseases, insect pest and drought; high dry matter content; low cyanogenic potential and other end-user traits. However, the major focus was to ensure food security and hence inadequate attention was paid to the current growing market demands for industrial use. In addition, there are inadequate modern research facilities, well-equipped laboratories and limited number      of researchers in some disciplines. Therefore, NCDS aims at strengthening and facilitating TARI and other research institutions to conduct market-oriented research that will respond to questions of end users for sustainable development of the cassava sub-sector.

Strategies

The cassava research strategies for providing sustainable food security, commercialization and industrial solutions are;

  1. Facilitate market-oriented cassava variety and product development;
    1. Facilitate, development and evaluation of improved agronomical packaging (soil fertility, farming practices and pest management);
    1. Facilitate the development and promotion of nutrient dense varieties; and
    1. Facilitate development of improved cost effective farm and post-harvest technologies.

Target

  1. Release 20 market preferred improved cassava varieties by 2030;
    1. Construct one modern laboratory and rehabilitate four laboratories for disease detection and nutrient quality assessment by 2030;
      1. Develop, evaluate and disseminate at least five agronomic packages and farm machinery technologies by 2030;
      1. Release at least five varieties which are nutrient dense by 2025; and
      1. Develop, evaluate and promote at least six post-harvest technologies by 2030.

Key Performance Indicator

  1. Number of cassava varieties developed and adopted by farmers;
  2. Number of laboratories constructed, retooled and in use;
  3. Number of agronomic package developed, promoted and adopted;
  4. Number of agronomic packages developed, promoted and adopted;
  5. Number of nutrient dense varieties released, promoted and adopted; and
  6. Number of machinery developed, evaluated, promoted and adopted.

SO 2: Strengthening the capacity of public and private institutions responsible for technology development, extension services and training

Rationale

Among the challenges facing cassava development is inadequate and low application of improved technologies along the value chain. There is inadequate extension services due to low numbers of trained research personnel and extension staff. In addition, service providers are not well equipped with technical know-how and working tools. Farmers and processors have inadequate knowledge on application of improved technologies such as Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), inadequate entrepreneurship and marketing skills. To address these challenges, the strategy aims at strengthening the capacity of the stakeholders along the value chain so as to ensure efficiency and quality services.

Strategy

Build the capacity of cassava stakeholders at all levels on various skills. These include:

  1. Facilitate and strengthen the capacity of cassava researchers, extension officers and laboratory technicians on agronomy, breeding, virology, entomology, pathology, pre and postharvest management;
  2. Facilitate cassava stakeholders exchange visits with countries where cassava has been strongly commercialized, for sharing knowledge on cassava enterprise development; and
  3. Establish farmer training centers in major cassava growing zones through Public Private Partnership.

Target

  1. At least sixty cassava researchers, extension officers and laboratory technicians capacitated on relevant skills by 2030;
  1. At least 24 cassava value chain stakeholders participate in exchange visits for sharing knowledge on cassava enterprise development by 2030; and
  2. At least 15 farmer training centers established in cassava producing zones by 2030.

Key Performance Indicator

  1. Number of cassava researchers, extension officers and laboratory technicians trained;
  2. Number of stakeholders trained ;
  3. Number of stakeholders participating in exchange visits; and
  4. Number of farmer training centres established and operational.

Theme 2: Production and Productivity

SO 3: Increase Cassava Production, Productivity and Profitability Rationale

Cassava is grown by over 1.9 million farmers with scattered small scale farms of about 0.4 hectares. The productivity of fresh cassava for the past 12 years (2006/2007 to 2018/2019) ranged from 3.4 to 8.5 tons/ha which is far below the potential productivity of 25 tons per hectare. In the same period, average production of fresh cassava ranged from 4 to 8.4 million tons despite of the presence of high yielding varieties with potential yield ranging from 12 to 50.8 t/ha (Appendix 5). Low production and productivity is attributed to improper land preparation, limited use of improved technologies (seeds, fertilizers, herbicides), changing climate and poor knowledge on cassava production among farmers and service providers, among others.

Thus, the strategy aims to improve production techniques to triple the current cassava production from 8.2 million tons (2018/2019) to 24 million tons by 2030. The increased production of cassava will happen through increasing yields of existing land through production intensification, and land expansion through conversion of agricultural or fallow land to cassava production. However, emphasis will be on intensification since area expansion could lead to encroachment into some of the reserved forested areas in different regions which may pose serious risks to biodiversity, carbon storage and other environmental services.

Strategies:

The following strategies will be put in place to ensure increased productivity and production:-

  • Improve production and productivity of cassava through application of improved technologies;
    • Improve technology transfer mechanisms along production value chain;
  • Establish clusters (zoning) and or block farming; and
    •   Train on and promote use of GAP in cassava (land preparation, pest and disease management, timely planting, timely weeding, use of improved seeds, fertilizers, herbicides).

Targets:

  1. Increase cassava productivity from 8.3 tons per hectare in 2018/2019 to 16 tons per hectare by 2030;
  2. Increase the area under cassava production from the current 990,835 ha to 1.5 million hectares by 2030
  3. Increase the number of farmers cultivating cassava from 1.9 million to 2.2 million by 2030;
  4. Increase annual cassava root production from 8.2 million tons in 2018/2019 to 24 million tons by 2030; and
  5. Increase number of public and private institutions involved in technology transfer to foster commercial cassava production by 10% in 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Quantities of cassava produced per unit area;
  2. Number of hectares under cassava production;
  3. Quantities of cassava produced per year;
  4. Number of farmers growing cassava;
  5. Number of clusters (zones) or block farms established;
  6. Percentage of new   private  and public institutions   involved   in cassava technology transfer;
  7. Number of farmers using GAP in cassava production;

SO 4: Strengthen and Promote the Use of Improved Agricultural Mechanization Technologies in Cassava Production

Rationale

Despite of cassava production being labour intensive, its production in Tanzania is not fully mechanized. Majority of farmers are using simple farming tools such as hand hoe and only    a few are using tractors in land preparation. Poor land preparation and crop management have negative impact on the overall performance of crop and yield. Low use of agricultural machinery leads to farmers cultivating small cassava farms and increased costs of production

per unit area. Mechanised farming is hindered by a number of factors including high costs of agricultural machinery; low purchasing power by most farmers; lack of comprehensive agro- mechanization packages; non-compatibility of farm technologies to local conditions; inadequate trained operators and quality control mechanism for agricultural machinery and insufficient after-sale services to agricultural machinery and implements.

The strategy will provide enabling environment for cassava mechanization activities along the production value chain. The strategy will promote establishment of privately-owned service provision centres for land cultivation, tillage, weeding, harvesting and post-harvest processing machinery. Local artisans will be embraced to execute repairs and make locally adopted machines.

Strategies

  • Introduce and adapt labour saving technologies to improve timeliness and efficiency of farm operations;
    • Facilitate and promote private sector investment in establishing mechanization service provision centres equipped with necessary machines along the cassava value chain; and
    •   Facilitate and support local artisans to manufacture and disseminate quality and affordable farm implements.

Targets

  • At least ten new types of cassava machinery (for ploughing, ridging, planting, weeding, harvesting, post-harvesting, etc) introduced by 2030;
  • Twenty mechanization service provision centres established in 7 major cassava producing Zones by 2030;
  •   Twenty established service provision centres linked with credit facilities for them to acquire modern farming machinery by 2030
  •   Identify and facilitate seven local artisans to manufacture three types of prototype machines by 2030.
  • At least 30% of farmers mechanise cassava production by 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Number and type of machinery introduced and adopted;
  2. Number of mechanization service provision centres established and functioning;
  3. Number of service centres linked with credit facilities;
  1. Number of local artisans manufacturing cassava related mechanisation machines; and
  2. Percentage of farmers mechanising cassava production.

SO 5: Improve Availability and Accessibility of Cassava Seed and other Inputs Rationale

Availability of agricultural inputs at the right quantity, quality and timely is fundamental for cassava crop development. Currently, there is inadequate supply of agricultural inputs including quality planting materials whereby less than one percent of area under cassava production is accessing quality planting materials from the formal seed system. There is also inadequate supply of early generation seed (Figure 2) attributed to the lack of massive multiplication technology and irrigation infrastructure. In addition, few farmers are using fertilizers and other inputs in cassava production due to low purchasing power, distance from the source and low motivation due to unstable markets. Cassava formal seed system is still at infant stage with a limited number of seed multipliers and 110 inspectors that do not match with the demand (ref. cassava seed systems). The strategy is therefore aiming at creating an enabling environment for effective and efficient private–led cassava input supply system.

Strategies

  1. Strengthen seed system for delivering improved cassava varieties to farmers and other users;
  2. Strengthen association of seed growers and other value chain actors;
  3. Mobilize and facilitate public and private institutions to invest in input development and supply; and
  4. Strengthen and promote appropriate use of other inputs (pesticides, fertilizer) and irrigation to foster cassava production.

Target

  1. Increase availability of quality cassava planting materials from 40.96 million cuttings in 2018 to 3.5 billion cuttings by 2030;
    1. Ensure at least 30% of the area under cassava production are planted with planting materials of improved varieties by 2030;
    1. Increase area of registered cassava planting material multiplication farms from 398.85 ha 2020 to 15,000 ha by 2030;
    1. Develop and disseminate cassava fertilizer rates and facilitate establishment of at least 5 large scale input suppliers by 2030;
    1. Train and deploy at least 100 authorised seed inspectors and    20 cassava input suppliers by 2030; and
  • At least 50% of early generation cassava seed farms equipped with modern irrigation facilities by 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Number of quality planting materials produced and accessed;
  2. Percentage of areas planted with improved cassava seed;
  3. Number of seed companies and individual seed producers officially registered;
  4. Number of famers using agricultural inputs in cassava farming;
  5. Number of seed inspectors and agro-dealers capacitated; and
  6. Number of seed farms equipped with modern irrigation facilities;

Theme 3: Post-harvest Management

SO 6: Facilitate and Strengthen Cassava Post-Harvest Management, Product Development and Value Addition

Rationale

Production of high quality products from cassava roots involves peeling, washing, grating, dewatering, pulverising, sieving/sifting and drying. All these operations are labour-intensive  as they depend on human labour to a great extent. This is partly attributed to inadequate accessibility and availability of appropriate processing and drying technologies.

The quality and volume of processed products is low and inconsistency in supply is common. Currently, there are no large scale processing plants producing high value cassava products such as starch, modified starch, syrup and bio-ethanol. However, there are about 10 medium and 150 small-scale processing factories producing HQCF and dried chips. The perishable nature of the crop and limited cassava processing plants as well as inadequacy of improved post-harvest technologies are major bottlenecks for increasing production and also contribute significantly to post-harvest loss. The strategy, therefore, intends to facilitate and improve post- harvest management practices and processing technologies for sustainable development of the cassava sub-sector.

Strategies

  1. Strengthen and facilitate introduction of cost effective post-harvest management technologies;
    1. Strengthen and support local manufacturers of cassava processing machines to fabricate appropriate and affordable machines;
    1. Facilitate the establishment of primary cassava processing centers and aggregators at the production catchment;
    1. Facilitate establishment of medium and large scale high value products processing plants in major cassava growing zones through Public Private Partnership (PPP);
  • Upscaling the existing cassava processing plants; and
    • Ensure adherence to good processing procedure (GMP).

Target

  1. Facilitate 100 processing groups with improved peeling, drying and storage technologies by 2030;
    1. Five manufacturers of processing equipment facilitated by 2030;
    1. Fifty primary Agro-Processing Centers (ACP) and product aggregators at production catchments established and equipped with 200 mobile processing units by 2030;
    1. Fifteen medium and five large scale high value cassava products processing plants established and operational under PPP by 2030;
    1. Upscaling 150 cassava processing plants by 2023; and
    1. Good manufacturing practices manual developed and adopted by 2023.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Number of technologies introduced and adopted;
  2. Number of processing machinery manufacturers facilitated;
  3. Number of processing units established;
  4. Number of products developed and commercialized;
  5. Number of cassava processors facilitated; and
  6. Number of processors trained with good manufacturing practices (GMP).

Theme 4: Market, Trade and Industrialization

SO 7: Strengthen and Facilitate Phytosanitary Services to Manage Pest Risk and Compliance with International Trade Requirements

Rationale

Sanitary and phytosanitary services are governed by the Plant Health Act No.04 of 2020 and its regulations, the Tanzania Seed Act No. 18 of 2003 and its Amendments of 2014 and other regional and international requirements on aspects of plant protection. The key role being, to prevent the entry and spread of exotic diseases and pests from other countries, ensure timely detection of diseases and pests and their control measures.

Competent national authorities including the Tanzania Plant Health and Pesticides Authority (TPHPA) will be involved to provide technical support on sanitary and phytosanitary measures. Cassava production and product development should comply with the relevant phytosanitary laws and regulations on import/export. However, there is inadequate personnel and equipment to execute inspection and  certification  in  some  border  posts,  limited  field  surveillance  and phytosanitary inspection at farm level and low awareness of cassava stakeholders on phytosanitary issues. The Cassava Development Strategy, therefore, aims at strengthening

plant quarantine and phytosanitary services for compliance with local, regional and international market requirements.

Strategies

  1. Enhance phytosanitary compliance to national, regional and international standards and protocols;
    1. Strengthen capacities of plant health inspectors within the country at border posts;
    1. Establish decentralised network for surveillance of cassava pests and diseases;
    1. Strengthen capacity of plant health services to manage pest risk threats and maintain pest risk document for public use.

Target

  1. Conduct surveillance annually;
  2. Develop and disseminate phytosanitary guidelines and training manual by 2025.
  3. All border posts retooled with improved equipment by 2030;
  4. Train 200 plant health services inspectors by 2030;
  5. Train 100 extension officers in cassava growing districts for decentralised surveillance network by 2030;
  6. Train 1,000 cassava stakeholders on phytosanitary compliance by 2030; and
  7. Prepare and maintain pest risk analyses for external cassava pest and disease threats by 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Number of surveillance reports produced;
  2. Number of border posts retooled;
  3. Number of plant health personnel trained;
  4. Number of extension officers trained;
  5. Number of cassava stakeholders trained;
  6. Number of pest risk analyses prepared;
  7. Guideline and training manual in place.

SO 8: Promote and Facilitate Cassava Commercialization Rationale

Cassava commercialization involves transformation of subsistence – oriented farming system towards market patterns of production for profit maximization. Despite of the existing potential of suitable land and growing market at both Local and International levels, there is low investment along the cassava value chain in support of cassava commercialization. This is attributed to among others, the weak linkage between stakeholders including service providers, policy makers, financial institutions and cassava producers; unreliable data and information and unsupportive infrastructures along the value chain. These hinder investors in making decisions on the type and level of investment. Therefore, the strategy intends to create an enabling environment to support investments along the cassava value chain. It also intends to establish a commercialized model such that farmers are well linked to service providers as well as ultimate markets as stipulated in figure 5 below.

Figure 5: Cassava Commercialization Model

Strategies

  1. To develop cassava investment plan in alignment with ASDP2, TAIDF, FYDP2 by 2022;
  2. Facilitate improvement of basic infrastructure along the cassava value chain (feeder roads, storage facilities, water, electricity); and
  3. Enhance enabling environment for investment along the cassava value chain.

Target

  • National cassava investment plan developed and disseminated by 2022;
  • Identify four large scale and 10 medium scale investment areas by 2030;
  • Improve 30% of infrastructure in major cassava producing zones by 2030; and
  • Develop 400,000 ha for cassava enterprise investments by 2030;

Key Performance Indicators

  1. National cassava investment plan document;
  2. Number of investment areas identified and promoted;
  3. Number and type of infrastructure improved; and
  4. Land developed for investment.

SO 9: Strengthen Cassava Product Markets and Marketing Infrastructure Rationale

Currently, there is inadequate appropriate transport facilities, established markets and marketing infrastructure as well as quality storage facilities (warehouses) for both fresh and processed cassava products. The weakness of structured markets contributes to inefficient responses to the growing cassava demand at local, regional and international levels. The quantity and quality of cassava products developed and traded locally in Tanzania rarely meet minimum quality standards and volumes required by international markets. There are many factors that hinder the market performance of cassava products in Tanzania such as low adoption of cassava product specifications, unstable prices, limited support for collective marketing, low cassava product diversification and inadequate marketing information. Despite these constraints, there is a great potential for cassava market expansion within and outside Tanzania due to the growing population as well as the rapid growth of animal feed demand and textile, pharmaceutical, and confectionary industries where cassava and cassava products can be deployed.

To address the matter, NCDS will create a conducive environment to establish structured markets for cassava and cassava products to ensure smooth trading. It will also facilitate private sector participation in cassava business and investments.

Strategies

  1. Establish a system for marketing cassava products at domestic, regional and international markets;
    1. Strengthen and facilitate cassava marketing infrastructure and networking;
    1. Facilitate and promote cassava product diversification to increase market share at national, regional and international levels; and
  1. Develop, review and promote use of national, regional and international standards of cassava products.

Target

  1. Market system for cassava products (fresh roots, chips, flour and starch) enhanced by 2030;
  2. Five small scale and one large scale cassava collection centres established per district in major cassava growing areas by 2030;
  3. Two hundred farmers and processor groups transformed into Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOS) by 2030;
  4. Cassava diversified into new products (glucose syrup, modified starch, blending cereal with HQCF and ethanol) for new markets by 2030;
  5. At least five cassava product specifications /standards adhered to by 2030; and
  6. A total of 500,000 cassava stakeholders trained on entrepreneurship and marketing skills by 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Cassava market system in place;
    1. Number of diversified products being traded;
    1. Number of cassava based cooperatives established;
    1. Numbers of small and large collection centres established and utilised; and
    1. Number of cassava product quality standards adopted.

Theme 5: Policy and Enabling Environment

SO 10: Strengthen Cassava Related Policy and Facilitate Coordination Among Cassava Stakeholders Along the Value Chain

Rationale

The National Agriculture policy and other related policies, strategies and programmes have recognized cassava as  an  important  food  and  income  generating  crop.  However,  there is deficiency in the implementation of those policy directives that create an institutional environment to facilitate sustainable commercial cassava production, despite of the expanding market opportunities for cassava and cassava products at all levels. Similarly, there are limited coordination of efforts among stakeholders along the cassava value chain leading to low growth rate and performance of the cassava sub-sector.

Strategies

  1. Strengthen collaboration and linkages between national, regional and international institutions involved in the cassava value chain;
  2. Facilitate and strengthen regulatory environment for growth of the cassava sub-sector; and
  3. Strengthen and coordinate all cassava development initiatives and related policies.

Target

  1. Cassava stakeholders platforms identified, established and strengthened by 2025;
    1. Key development partners and other stakeholders identified and coordinated annually; and
    1. Policy and regulatory environments for growth of the cassava sub-sector strengthened by 2030.

Key Performance Indicator

  1. Number of platforms formed at various levels;
    1. Number of policies and regulatories developed, reviewed and adopted; and
    1. Number of development partners and other stakeholders coordinated.

SO 11: Strengthen Cassava Stakeholders’ Access to Financial Services Rationale

Financial services are among the key support services required for commercial Cassava production, processing and marketing activities. However, there is limited access to financial services by some cassava stakeholders which contributes to low level of operations and investment along the cassava value chain. In addition, some financial institutions are reluctant to support farmers and small-scale cassava related entrepreneurs due to uncertainty for loan recovery. Similarly, some cassava farmers are not organized into cooperatives or any structured model/associations hence creating difficulties for the service providers such as banks and other financiers to provide their services efficiently. Therefore, NCDS aim at improving financial services to cassava value chain actors and establishing the crop insurance schemes to protect them from unforce risks and bank loans

Strategies

  1. Strengthen and facilitate accessibility to financial services by cassava stakeholders along the value chain;
  1. Strengthen and facilitate crop insurance scheme to protect cassava value chain actors; and
    1. Promote cooperatives/associations for cassava farmers.

Target

  1. At least 10,000 cassava stakeholders linked with financial institutions by 2030;
  2. Cassava Farmers guarantee and ensure scheme established by 2030; and
  3. At least 50 percent of cassava producers and processors groups promoted and facilitated to form cooperatives (AMCOS) and SACCOS by 2030.

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Number of stakeholders linked to financial institutions;
    1. Number of financial institutions supporting cassava commercialization;
    1. Number of cooperatives and SACCOS established;
    1. Number of farmers accessing bank loans.

SO 12. Strengthen the Availability and Accessibility of Robust Cassava Data along the Value Chain

Rationale

Availability and accessibility of cassava information is vital for development and sustainability of the cassava value chain. However, the collection and dissemination of information to various actors in the sector is inefficient. This calls for a well-structured system for data collection and packaging in order to have an efficient mechanism for timely sharing of information related to cassava production, processing and marketing.

Nevertheless, accurate cassava information is largely neither available nor reliable for policy formulation and decision making. In addition, there is limited participation of the private sector in the collection, processing and dissemination of cassava information. Moreover, there is conflicting and inconsistent information from various sources.

Strategies

  1. Promote and strengthen appropriate system for data collection, analysis and dissemination of cassava information;
  2. Promote and strengthen collaboration with other stakeholders on the participation of cassava data collection, analysis and dissemination and
  3. Align data on cassava industry with other agriculture data and information systems.

Target

  1. Appropriate tools for data collection, analysis and dissemination of cassava information promoted and strengthened by 2030;
  2. 250 stakeholders participate in cassava data collection, analysis and dissemination by 2025 and
  3. Quarterly bulletin on cassava industry disseminated by 2025

Key Performance Indicators

  1. Tools to collect and analyse cassava data in place and used;
    1. Number of stakeholders participating in data collection, analysis and dissemination;
    1. Number of farmers, processors, traders registered and
    1. Inventory of cassava products in place.

An improved solar dryer (Credit: IITA, MoA)

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.                 IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION

This chapter outlines key roles of NCDS implementing actors, monitoring, evaluation and proposed budget for five years implementation plan. For effective strategy implementation, efficient monitoring and evaluation are essential. Through monitoring and evaluation, achievements and challenges during the implementation will be identified and addressed.

5.1.                  Implementation Arrangement

The governance of the NCDS will be under the Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries (ASLMs). These are President’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government (PO – RALG); Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Ministry of Industry and Trade (MIT).

The implementation of the various aspects of the strategy will involve several relevant institutions/ organisations including but not limited to; Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC); research institutions; universities; private sector institution and service providers; financial institutions; local and international organization, development partners such as FAO, IITA, AGRA, MEDA, World Vision, WFP, CARE, UNIDO and Africare.

Generally, the government will create and sustain an enabling policy and institutional framework such as good governance, supportive laws and regulations which include maintenance of conducive and stable micro and macro-economic policy framework and attractive investment opportunities. This will ensure optimum private sector participation in the implementation of the strategy. Other implementers are farmers, processors, traders, transporters and agro-dealers.

The strategy will be implemented in two phases of five years each. For effective and smooth implementation of the NCDS by different stakeholders a clear demarcation of assigned responsibilities and roles is proposed:

5.1.1.                The Ministry of Agriculture

The Ministry of Agriculture will be responsible for supervising implementation, monitoring, evaluating and coordinating all activities of the strategy. It will also facilitate resource mobilization, oversee implementation of the strategy and ensure institutional coordination among various actors along the cassava value chain.

5.1.2.                Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries

The Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries constitutes the Ministries responsible for Industries and Trade, President’s Office and Regional Administration and Local Government (PO- RALG), Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlement Development, Ministry of Water, Ministry

of Livestock and Fisheries, Prime Minister’s office – Investment. These ministries with their institutions will provide favourable environment for the implementation of the strategy.

5.1.3.                  Development Partners

Development partners in Tanzania have been intensively involved in key areas of interventions that are covered in this strategy. They have been providing assistance in terms of fund and technical interventions to achieve the set objectives and drive the agricultural sector economy. It is therefore expected that development partners will compliment Government efforts to support initiatives geared towards improving development of the cassava sub-sector.

5.1.4.                Regional Secretariats and Local Government Authorities

Regional Secretariats and Local Government Authorities will support and incorporate cassava sub-sector development at lower levels through projects and programmes implemented in their jurisdictions. They will also facilitate acquisition of agricultural land and provide necessary support services including roads, market centers, extension services and business support to agro-based entrepreneurs for achieving the anticipated vision of the strategy.

5.1.5.                Research, Seed Agencies, Academic and Regulatory Institutions

There are several research, academic and regulatory institutions in the country which are relevant for implementation of the NCDS. Their roles in relation to cassava development interventions are in areas of research, technology transfer, training, quality assurance and marketing.

5.1.6.                Private Sector Organizations

The private sector including producers’ organizations, processors, traders, input supplier and machinery manufacturers who plays a significant role in carrying out various investments in cassava sub-sector are the key NCDS implementing actors.

5.1.7.                Direct Beneficiaries

Direct beneficiaries of this strategy includes farmers, processors, distributors, traders and service providers. In light of this, it is expected that they will participate effectively in decision making at all levels for purpose of effective implementation of the strategy.

5.1.8.                 Financial Institutions

Financial services are vital to the implementation of this strategy. Therefore, the financial service providers are expected to be active partners in achieving the envisaged vision of this strategy. In this regard they are encouraged to avail credit facilities and services with affordable conditions for both rural and urban stakeholders. However, it is envisaged that the strategy will be financed with resources from a number of sources including, the government, development partners, Private sector investors, NGOs and financial institutions.

5.1.9 Non- Governmental Organizations

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are expected to complement Government  efforts in the implementation of this strategy. NGOs interventions in supporting the National Cassava Development Strategy in Tanzania range from institutional capacity building and direct provision of financial and non-financial services.

5.2  Coordination, Monitoring and Evaluation

During program implementation the coordination team shall develop indicators for monitoring and evaluation of different programs and also decide on the monitoring system to be used. Nevertheless, some few examples of indicators are being provided in chapter four that can be expanded and used to evaluate the programs to be developed.

5.2.1.  Coordination

The strategy aims at strengthening linkages amongst actors along the cassava value chain that include policy makers, politicians, researchers, processors, producers, traders and consumers. This will be achieved through quarterly and or annual stakeholders and National Cassava Steering Committee (NCSC) meetings.

The NCSC will be a coordination platform of all the cassava stakeholders in the country and will comprise representatives from key actors along the value chain. The representatives will be drawn from both governmental and non-governmental institutions. Electronic platforms will be formed to link large number of stakeholders to ensure timely availability of information on volume, quality, location and price of the products. At policy making level, there will be a strong national, regional and diplomatic linkage to ensure effective cassava business and technology sharing along the value chain. The National Cassava Steering Committee has to oversee all cassava initiatives and provide technical backstopping and/or advice to the end users.

5.2.2  Monitoring

Monitoring of the strategy will involve implementation of the M&E framework which includes collecting and managing data on the planned activities against set targets and indicators. The process will also involve measuring and assessing implementation of activities on a continuous basis and provide feedback.

The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) will collaborate with Local Government Authorities and other stakeholders in monitoring the strategy. The process will be based on the set targets and activities and receive update on the achievements and challenges in the course of implementation. The actors responsible for implementing the strategy shall be obliged to regularly prepare reports and submit them to the strategy focal person appointed by the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry responsible for agriculture, for compilation and submission

to the Director of Crop Development. The reports will further be submitted to higher levels as it can be decided by the coordinating Ministry. These will include monthly, quarterly and annual reports (Appendix 6).

5.2.3  Review of the Strategy

The strategy will be reviewed after five years in order to align it with the regulatory framework and the economic, social and political changes in the country. The review process will be conducted by a team of technical experts to be appointed by the Permanent Secretary, MoA to undertake the assignment.

5.2.4  Evaluation

The MoA in collaboration with other stakeholders will conduct mid-term evaluation of the strategy at the end of the fifth and tenth year in order to assess the effectiveness for its implementation, achievements, challenges, and impact and for the purpose of being informed on future plans.

5.3    A Summarized Estimated Budget for NCDS Implementation Phase I

During phase one (2020 to 2025), implementation of NCDS will involve breeding of the new market oriented varieties, taking inventory of cassava initiatives and value chain actors for better coordination, improve post-harvest handling, improve market and market infrastructure as well as establishment of commercial farming to ensure consistent supply of industrial raw materials. Major focus is centred at increasing domestic market share through promoting industrial use of cassava and cassava products. To achieve that, approximately 113,362 million shillings is required for implementing five major themes namely research for development (2,210 million); production and productivity (2,000 million); post-harvest management (12,000 million), marketing, trade and industrialization (65,922 million); and policy and enabling environment (31,230 million) as indicated in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Estimated Budget for NCDS implementation Phase One (2020-2025)

  THEMES  OBJECTIVES  BASELINE  TARGETESTIMATED BUDGET (Million Tsh)
Research for develop- mentStrengthen and facilitate cassava research and development;26 released varieties, including nutrient rich 4 regular research labo- ratories 2 agronomic packages10 new released varieties, including 5 nutrient-rich 2 upgraded and 1 new research laboratory1,710
  2 IPM packages3 new agronomic packages 
  1 farm mechanization technology2 new IPM packages 
  4 post-harvest technolo- gies3 new farm mechanization technologies 
   7 new post-harvest technologies 
 Strengthening the capacity of public and private institutions responsible for technology development, extension services and training35 researchers, 7,307 extension officers and limited number of technicians conducting cassava research & extension 6 cassava value chain actors have applied improved knowledge 5 centers training in cassava technologiesNew training provided to 10 researchers, 100 extension officers and 20 lab technicians 18 cassava value chain actors applying knowledge from exchange visits 10 new centers training farmers in cassava technologies through PPP500
Sub-total Research for development2,210
Production and productivityIncrease cassava Production, Productivity and Profitability;Productivity 8.3 t/ha Production 8.2 million tons 0.99 million ha under productionProductivity 12 t /ha Production 14 million tons 1.3 million ha under production700
 Strengthen and promote the use of improved Agricultural mechanization technologies in cassava production;2 types of mechanization machinery No. of Cassava mechanization provision centers 5% area under mechanization3 new mechanization machinery being used by farmers 10 mechanization provision service centers established 20% of area under mechanization600
  THEMES  OBJECTIVES  BASELINE  TARGETESTIMATED BUDGET (Million Tsh)
 Improve availability and accessibility of cassava seed and other Inputs;800 ha commercial cassava seed production 80 million quality cassava cuttings/year 40,000 ha planted with improved varieties derived from quality seed 25% cassava seed producers registered Limited input dealers specific for cassava20,000 ha commercial cassava seed production 1.6 billion quality cassava cuttings 260,000 ha planted with improved varieties derived from quality cassava seed >90% cassava seed producers registered 10 dealers providing inputs for cassava700
Sub-total Production and Productivity2,000
Post-harvest Manage- mentFacilitate and strengthen cassava post-harvest management, product development and value addition5 processing groups being facilitated now 2 large-scale processors being facilitated now 4 equipment manufacture exists and 3 promoted. Limited number of Prima- ry cassava processing centers (intermediate centers)Facilitate 30 SMEs and processing groups 5 larger scale processor with improved technolo- gies by 2025 5 equipment manufac- turers promoted. Establish 20 primary (intermediate) cassava processing centers 5 mobile processing units by 2025 5 medium and 2 large scale high value cassa- va products processing plants established 150 small scale pro- cessing units up-scaled to medium by 2025 and updated GMP manual developed by 202312,000
  No mobile processing unit 
  No. of medium/large scale processing factory for high value cassava 
  Products processing plant 
  150 small scale process- ing unit 
  3 GMP manual available 
Sub-total Pos-tharvest Management12,000
Market, Trade and Industrializa-Strengthen and facilitate phytosanitary services to manage pest risk and for compliance with International Trade require- mentsCassava value actors trained in phytosanitary complianceTrain 500 cassava value chain actors on phy- tosanitary compliance 
tionLess than 200 Plant health service inspectorsTrain 50 plant health service inspectors on cassava related threats
  THEMES  OBJECTIVES  BASELINE  TARGETESTIMATED BUDGET (Million Tsh)
  Surveillance on cassava is irregularly conductedConduct surveillance annually532
Old phytosanitary guidelinesUpdated phytosanitary guidelines 
Inadequate number of inspection equipment at border postsBorder posts tooled with inspection equipment 
Limited knowledge of district extension officers on cassava pests and disease surveillanceTrain 200 district extension officers on surveillance of cassava pests and diseases 
 Strengthen cassava products market and marketing infrastructureOnly 15 small collection centers available (in Handeni and Mkuranga districts) 7 AMCOS (Kichauka in Karagwe, and other 6 in Handeni) deals with Cassava Three standards on cassava already developed 7,500 cassava producers trained on entrepreneur- ship50 new small scale and 10 large scale cassava collection centers estab- lished 50 Farmer processing groups transformed into AMCOS/cooperatives Five cassava product specifications standard adopted Additional 10,000 cas- sava producers trained on entrepreneurship  14,880
 Promote and fa- cilitate cassava commercializa- tion in TanzaniaNone existence of National Cassava investment plan 1600 ha currently allocated for CSTC to produce cassava, CPB on negotiation to acquire 100,000 ha Limited improved rural infrastructure (road, electricity, water) in rural areasDevelopment cassava investment plan Identification and allocation of land to 4 new large and 8 medium scale cassava investment areas Additional 200,000 ha for cassava large scale investment developed Basic infrastructure in identified investment area improved by 30%50,510
  THEMES  OBJECTIVES  BASELINE  TARGETESTIMATED BUDGET (Million Tsh)
Sub-total Market, Trade and Industrialization65,922
Policy and enabling environmentStrengthen cassava related policy and coordination among cassava stakeholders along the value chainAgriculture policy of 2013, ASDP II, 5YDP TACCAPA Platform 3 seed grower associations QDS guideline in placeReview cassava related policy Develop policy briefs to facilitate smooth trading Operationalize National NCSC 3 zonal cassava platforms formed590
   Develop/create 5 new seed growers’ associations 
 Strengthen access to financial services by Cassava value chain actors3 Billion Tsh NMB Bank loan to Handeni cassava farmers Large project CSTC –USD 8,000,000 Medium Projects Kolping Society of Tanzania Tsh 100 million (project)Mobilize Banks and DPs to offer financial support to cassava actors Link 3,000 cassava actors with financial institutions Formation of operational cassava related SA- COS/ cooperatives30,000
  JV Biotech Tsh. 100 million  
  However, there is limited data on financial invest- ment in cassava  
 Strengthen theProduction and productivity Data (ARDS) Presence of farmers’ registration system at MoA Presence of M- Kilimo, E-sokoAppropriate tool for data collection and dissemination developed Cassava farmers, processors and traders registered annually 100 stakeholders take part in cassava data collection550
 availability and 
 accessibility of 
 robust cassava 
 data along the 
 value chain 
 Strengthen monitoring and evaluationLimited number of evaluation reports on crop performanceEvaluation report prepared annually90
Policy and Enabling Environment31,2300
Grand Total113,272

Above: Snacks and foods prepared from cassava. Below: Packed cassava flour (Credit: IITA, MoA)

CHAPTER SIX

6.0.                 SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

6.1.                  Sustainability

At national level, there is clear evidence of sustainability given that, the Government is devoting its resources both human and financial capital to support development of the cassava sub- sector. This is reflected by the already established Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute where a total of seven research institutes, located at different agro-ecological zones, are working on cassava technology development. There is established partnership and networking between cassava producing countries at national, regional and international institutions associated with cassava development that will be strengthened to ensure regular availability of technologies, information and funding. The involvement of beneficiaries (e.g. farmers, processors, traders and agencies) in the planning and implementation process of the strategy contribute to the sustainability of the strategy as they become owners of the initiated interventions and voluntarily contribute to the functioning or implementation of NCDS. Improved production, productivity, value addition and marketing of cassava products will be motivating factors to the stakeholders.

6.2.                  Environmental Issues

The implementation of NCDS could have negative impacts on the environment if not well planned particularly from establishment of new cassava fields and effluents from large-scale cassava processing industries. Cassava processing produces large amount of solid and liquid wastes which are high in organic matter constituents and cyanide. It is estimated that one ton of fresh cassava produces about 20 kg of solid wastes (Men Sarom et al 2014) from cassava chips processing. The solid wastes, if properly managed, can be utilized in many ways including as fertilizer, animal feed and in aquaculture productions. Liquid (water) waste on the other hand if not well managed has potential to pollute ground water or lakes and has a strong and unpleasant smell that can reach 200 to 300m from the processing factory. To address environmental issues, the implementation of NCDS will advocate utilization of improved production and processing technologies as well as skilled manpower to ensure environmental health is not compromised.

To achieve this, the following will be considered:

  1. Continuous awareness creation and monitoring on establishing new cassava fields to reduce environmental problems associated with deforestation;
    1. Training of farmers on environmental issues related to cassava farming;
    1. Undertaking Environmental Impact Assessment at least after every five years.
    1. Capacity building of cassava stakeholders on integrated production and processing management; and
    1. Develop and promote alternative uses of both solid and liquid wastes.

REFERENCES

Adebayo Abass et al (2013). Potential for Commercial Production and Marketing: Experiences from small-scale cassava processing project in East and Southern Africa. IITA Ibadan, Nigeria.

ASARECA/KIT (2014). Tanzania Seed Sector Assessment: A Participatory National Seed Sector Assessment for the Development of an Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) Programme in Tanzania. April 2014, Entebbe, Uganda.

Ben Bennett et al. (2012). Cassava: Adding Value for Africa, Driving Demand for Cassava in Tanzania: the next step.

Comtrade Data Base, (2018) of the United Nations.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2020) Rome, Italy: FAOSTAT 2020.

FAO Food Outlook (November 2018); Biannual report on Global food markets.

FAO and IFAD. 2004. Global Cassava Market Study: Business opportunities for the use of cassava. Proceedings of the Validation Forum on the Global Cassava Development Strategy, Vol. 6. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Falade K.O and Akingbala J.O (2010). Utilization of cassava for food. Review International, pp 27.

Kapinga, R., Westby, A., Rwiza, E., Bainbridge, Z. and Nsanzugwanko, A. (1998) Diversification of cassava utilisation in the Lake Zone of Tanzania: a case study. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 75, 125–128.

Lekule F.P, Shem M.N., Laswai G.H., Sarwat S.V., Mutayoba S.K. and Mtunda K. (2006). Cassava and livestock Feeds; In Proceedings of a workshop on Cassava Production, Processing and Utilization for improving income Generation in Tanzania, National Museum, Dar es salaam Tanzania (14th to 16th August 2006).

Men Sarom et al (June 2014). Environmental Impacts Assessment on the Production and Processing of Cassava in Cambodia; Phnom Penh, Cambodia pg 27.

Ndunguru G. T. and Undolle P.M. (2006). Marketing opportunities for cassava in Tanzania: Policies and Strategies; In Proceedings of a workshop on cassava production, processing  and utilization for improving income generation in Tanzania; National museum, Dar es salaam Tanzania. 14th to 16th August 2006).

Otekunrin, O.A. and Sawicka, B. (2019). “Cassava, a 21st Century Staple Crop: How can Nigeria Harness Its Enormous Trade Potentials?” ACTA Scientific Agriculture Vol.3, August 2019.

Ruling Manifesto 2020-2025.

Sánchez, T. Chávez, A. L. Ceballos, H. Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., Nestel,P and Ishitani M. (2006). Reduction or delay of post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava roots with higher carotenoid content. J. Sci. Food Agric., 86 (4) (2006), pp. 634-639.

United Republic of Tanzania. AGISTATS For Food Security Report 2018/2019 Vol I, Ministry of Agriculture Dodoma.

United Republic of Tanzania (2016/2017). Annual Agriculture Sample Survey Initial Report, Dodoma.

Other report and policies consulted.

United Republic of Tanzania (2013). National Agriculture Policy Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives, Dar es salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania (1997). The Agricultural and Livestock Policy, 1997. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

United Republic of Tanzania (1995). Tanzania Development Vision 2025, Planning Commission, Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania (1996). National Investment Promotion Policy, President Office, Planning Commission Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania (2002). Small and Medium Enterprise Development Policy, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Government Printer, Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania (2010). Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umaskini Tanzania II, Wizara ya Fedha na Uchumi Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania (2011). The Tanzania Five Year Development Plan 2011/2012- 2015/2016, President Office, Planning Commission Dar es Salaam.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Major Cassava Growing Regions in Tanzania

Main cassava cropping zones in Tanzania (Source: TARI Kibaha)

Key
 High production
 Moderate production
 Low / no production

Appendix 2: Area under Cassava Production, and Cassava Production and Productivity from 2005/06 – 2018/2019

Period (Year)Area (000 Ha)Production (000 Tons)Productivity (t/ha)
2005/2006993.176,158.306.2
2006/2007779.075,198.936.67
2008/20091,081.385,916.445.47
2009/2010872.9994,547.945.21
2010/2011739.794,646.526.28
2011/2012954.515,462.455.72
2012/2013863.684,755.165.51
2013/2014800.454,992.766.24
2014/20151,094.905,886.445.38
2015/20161,111.666,614.355.95
2016/20171,202.2164,025.2653.35
2017/2018983.5028,372.2118.51
2018/2019990.8358,184.0938.3

Appendix 3: Current Cassava Production and Projections per Region

No.RegionCurrent Status of Cassava Production (2018/2019)Projections Fresh (Tons)
Dry (Tons)Fresh (Tons)% Share in annual production2024/20252029/2030
1Kigoma364,6491,093,94713.311,863,6333,196,800
2Mtwara319,381958,14311.661,632,2792,800,800
3Mwanza249,619748,8579.111,275,7432,188,800
4Pwani241,189723,5678.801,232,6592,114,400
5Kagera240,600721,8008.781,229,6492,109,600
6Ruvuma217,803653,4097.951,113,1391,910,400
7Tanga173,092519,2766.32884,6322,000,000
8Geita157,288471,8645.74803,8611,380,000
9Mara150,470451,4105.49769,0161,320,000
10Lindi118,114354,3424.31603,6521,500,000
11Rukwa110,918332,7544.05566,875745,400
12Tabora85,414256,2423.12436,530600,200
13Morogoro63,056189,1682.30322,264510,000
14Katavi47,094141,2821.72240,686300,000
15Dodoma46,715140,1451.71238,749410,000
16Mbeya44,474133,4221.62227,296250,000
17Shinyanga30,60591,8151.12156,415201,200
18Dar es salaam21,46664,3980.78109,708100,000
19Songwe16,14048,4200.5982,488100,000
20Singida10,86132,5830.4055,50896,000
21Njombe10,25330,7590.3752,40155,000
22Kilimanjaro7,68223,0460.2839,26141,000
23Simiyu7,24221,7260.2637,01240,000
24Arusha2,2636,7890.0811,56613,200
25Manyara1,9745,9220.0710,08912,000
26Iringa9572,8710.034,8915,200
 Total2,739,3198,217,957100.0014,000,00024,000,000

Appendix 4: List of initiatives in the cassava Sub – sector

THEMEPROJECT FOCUSFUNDING AGENCYLEAD ORGANIZATIONTIME FRAME
Cassava breedingVariety developmentAGRA-PASSSugarcane Research Institute now TARI-Kibaha2011-2015
Cassava breedingWorld Bank: East Africa Agri- cultural Productivity Program (EAAPP-GOT)Directorate of Research and Development -MALF2010-2015
Variety develop- ment using Ge- nomic SelectionNext Generation CassavaBill and Melinda Gates FoundationCornell University – TARI is a partner in Phase II2018-2022
Seed SystemsDeveloping cassava seed systems involving private sectorSSTP (AGRA-USAID)TARI-Kibaha (former Sugarcane Research Institute)2014-2017
Piloting the commercialization of the cassava seed system using Cassava Seed EntrepreneurshipBill and Melinda Gates FoundationMuhogo Mbegu Bingwa -Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA)2012-2015
Piloting early generation seed produc- tion in ‘New Cassava Varieties and Clean Seed to Combat CBSD and CMD’ projectIITA (Funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)2011-2015
Piloting Involvement of farmers in Cas- sava Brown Streak Controlling ‘Com- munity Phyto-sanitation Project’Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationTARI-Kibaha (former Sugarcane Research Institute)2012-2017
Piloting clean seed in ‘Great Lakes Cassava Initiative’Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationCatholic Relief Services (CRS)2008-2012
Scaling up cassava seed entrepre- neurship and early generation seed in ‘Building an Economically Sustainable Seed System Cassava (BEST cassa- va)’Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationMennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA)On going
AgronomyFertilizer recommendations for cassa- va in ‘Agronomy Cassava Initiative in Africa (ACAI)’Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)On going
Cassava DiseasesCassava Disease DiagnosticsBill and Melinda Gates FoundationMikocheni Agricultural Research Institute (MARI)completed
THEMEPROJECT FOCUSFUNDING AGENCYLEAD ORGANIZATIONTIME FRAME
Cassava PestsWhitefly control in CassavaBill and Melinda Gates Founda- tionNatural Resource Institute (NRI)- TARI-Mikocheni is participatingOn going
Cassava Process- ingValue additionGovernment of Tanzania for MUVI, MIVARF-GoT, VECOPrime Minister’s officecompleted
Value AdditionCassava Value Addition in AfricaNatural Resource Institute (NRI)- Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC) was participatingcompleted
Small scale cassava processingCommon Fund for Commodity (CFC)International Institute of Tropical Agri- culture (IITA)completed
Cassava Transfor- mationUpscaling cassava technologies in ‘Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT)’African Development Bank (AFDB)International Institute of Tropical Agri- culture (IITA) – TARI is a partnerLaunched 2018

Appendix 5: List of Released Cassava Varieties

VarietyYear of releaseOwner(s)/Maintainer and seed sourceOptimal production alti- tude range (M a.s.l)Places recommendedYield (t/Ha)
1. Kibaha2003TARI- Kibaha0-1000Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga30.0
2. Naliendele2003TARI- Kibaha0-1000Pwani, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga12.0
3. Mumba2003SRI Kibaha0-1000Pwani, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga29.0
4. Kiroba2004SRI Kibaha0-1400Pwani, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga, Lake Zone Regions26.0
5. Hombolo 952004SRI Kibaha0-1000Pwani, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga39.0
6. Rangi Mbili2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
7. Meremeta2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
8. Mkombozi2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
9. Belinde2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
10. Kasala2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
11. Suma2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
12. Kyaka2009ARI-Ukiriguru900-1800Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Mara, Kigoma, Tabora16-23
13. Pwani2011ARI Naliendele0-600Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga50.8
14. Mkumba2011ARI0-1400Dodoma, Singida, Lake Zone regions20.6 – 23.3
15.Makutupora2011ARI Naliendele700-1500Dodoma, Singida30.3
16. Dodoma2011ARI Naliendele700-1500Dodoma, Singida36
17. Chereko2014ARI Kibaha0 – 750Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara,Tanga, 
18. Kizimbani2014ARI Kibaha0 – 1400Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara, Tanga, Lake zone regions15.5 – 22.6
VarietyYear of releaseOwner(s)/Maintainer and seed sourceOptimal production alti- tude range (M a.s.l)Places recommendedYield (t/Ha)
19. Mkuranga -12014ARI Kibaha0 – 1400Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara,Tanga, Lake Zone regions19.8 – 21.6
20. Kipusa2014ARI Kibaha0 – 750Pwani; Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara,Tanga18.6
21. RARI – CASS 12020TARI0-1400Southern, Eastern, Central, Western and Lake Zones30.7
22. TARI – CASS 22020TARI0 – 1400Southern, Eastern, Central, Western and Lake Zones28.2
23. TARI – CASS 32020TARI0 – 1400Southern, Eastern, Central, Western and Lake Zones35.3
24. TARI – CASS 42020TARI0 – 1400Southern, Eastern, Central, Western and Lake Zones39.4
25. TARI – CASS 52020TARI0 – 1400Southern, Eastern, Central, Western and Lake Zones30.9

Appendix 6: QUARTERLY MONITORING SHEET

Strategic objective:Quarterly target (cumulatively)Actual performance
Strategy:Target (Annually)Key performance indicatorBaseline dataMonth 1Month 2Month 3Month 1Month 2Month 3
          

Appendix 7: QUARTERLY ACTIVITY MONITORING SHEET

No.Planned activitiesTargetsImplementation performanceRemarks
Implemented activitiesAchievements
      

Appendix 8:  Strategy Implementation Plan

StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Strengthen and facilitate cassava research and development
Facilitate market-oriented cassava varieties and product developmentRelease additional 20 market preferred improved cassava varieties by 2030 Construct one modern and retool four laboratories with improved facilities for disease detection and nutrient quality assessment by 2030To conduct market research to identify market requirements Collection and maintenance of germplasm with required traits To develop new varieties with superior traits for food security and industrial uses   Fund mobilization to support research activities and retooling of research laboratories to improve their performanceNumber of cassava varieties developed and adopted by farmers Number of laboratories constructed, retooled and in useMoA, TARI, IITA, COSTECH, DPs, private sectors, farmers and pro- cessors2020- 2030
  To retool national research centers to improve their performance   
Facilitate development and evaluation of improved agronomical packaging (Soil fertility, farming practices and pest management)Develop, evaluate and disseminate at least five new agronomic packages and three farm machinery technologies by 2030To support establishment of integrated cassava crop management practices and development of agronomic packages To package technologies that suit specified category of stakeholdersNumber of agronomic packages developed, promoted and adoptedMoA, TARI, IITA, DPs, NGOs, private sector, farmers, service providers2020- 2030
  To develop, evaluate and disseminate farm machinery technologies   
  To develop tailor-made agronomic package for farmers in specific environment   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate the development and promotion of nutrient dense varietiesRelease at least five varieties which are nutrient dense by 2025To collect superior germplasm with nutrient dense traits To develop and promote use of nutrient dense varietiesNumber of nutrient dense varieties released, promoted and adoptedMoA, TARI, IITA, DPs, NGOs, private sector, farmers, service provider2020 – 2025
Facilitate development of improved cost effective farm and post-harvest technologies.Develop, evaluate and promote at least 14 post- harvest technologies by 2030To develop and evaluate appropriate mechanical operations along the value chain To support development of appropriate methods for storage of fresh roots and processed cassava productsNumber of machinery developed, evaluated, promoted and adoptedMoA, TARI, IITA, DPs, private sector, farmers, service provider2020- 2030
  To promote use of appropriate post- harvest technologies   
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Strengthen the capacity of public and private institutions responsible for technology development, extension services and training
Facilitate and strengthening the capacity of cassava researchers, extension officers and laboratory technicians on agronomy, breeding, virology, entomology, pathology, pre and post-harvest managementAt least 60 cassava researchers, extension officers and laboratory technicians capacitated on relevant skills by 2030To carry out training need assessment and resource mobilization To support short and long courses training for cassava specialists in various disciplinesNumber of cassava specialists trainedMOA, TARI, DPs, IITA, SUA, LGAs2020- 2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate cassava value chain actors exchange visits with countries in which cassava has strongly commercialized for sharing knowledge on cassava enterprise developmentAt least 24 cassava value chain actors applied knowledge from exchange visits for sharing knowledge on cassava enterprise developmentTo identify technologies and countries to be visited To organize fund for supporting exchange visits at regional and international levels.Number of stakeholders who participated in exchange visitsMoA, MIT, MATs,, Private Sector, DPs, PO- RALG, inter- national organiza- tions, TARI, LGAs, farmers2020 -2030
Establish farmer training centers in major cassava growing zones through Public Private Partner- shipAt least 15 centers training farmers in major cassava producing zones by 2030To identify and sensitise private sector investors to establish training centers To support TOT training to extension staff, lead farmers and processors on GAP and GMPNumber of farmer training centers established and operationalMoA, MATI, PO- RALG, LGAs,2020- 2030
  To support establishment of demo plots to demonstrate improved tech- nology along the value chain   
  To equip Ward Agricultural Resource centers (WARC) for dissemination of improved technologies   
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Increase Cassava production, productivity and Productivity
Improve production and productivity of cassava through application of improved technologiesIncrease production from 8.2 million tons 2018/2019 to 24 million tons and productivity from 8.3 to 16 tons/ha by 2030Sensitization and promotion of use of best-fit technological packages for different locations (improved seeds, fertilizers and other GAP) among cassava farmersNumber of demo plots established Number of farmers trainedMoA, TARI, SUA, IITA LGAs, Public institutions, Private sector and Farmers2020- 2030
  To carry out soil fertility test and land mobilization for commercial cassava production in potential districtsNumber and size of cassava farms established  
  Facilitation of extension agents to deploy cassava production technologies to target farmersNumber of extension agent trained  
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Improve technology transfer mechanisms in production value chainNumber of public and private institutions involved in technology transfer to foster commercial cassava production increased by 10 % by 2030.To identify and sensitize public and private institutions to take part in technology transfer process To develop technology packages and technology transfer channel based on end users categoryNumber of private sector involved Number of tech- nology packages developed and adoptedMoA, TARI, IITA, LGAs Universities and Private Sector2020- 2030
  To publicize technology transfer channel to the community through simple and clear communication means   
Clustering (zoning) and or establishment of Block farmingNumber of farmers cultivating cassava increase from 1.9 million to 2.2 million by 2030 Area under cassava production increased from the current 990,835 ha to 1.5 million ha by 2030To develop and distribute tools to profile farmers to enable establishment of clusters and or block farming in major cassava producing Zones for better access to agricultural services and information To sensitize and mobilize public in- stitutions (JKT trainees and prisons, MATIs, colleges, schools), private institutions and commercial farmers to establish large scale farms (block farms) in major cassava growing zonesNumber of hect- ares under cassa- va production Number of clusters or zones formed Number of block farms establishedMoA, TARI, IITA, LGAs universities and private sector, TACAPPA, MEDA2020- 2030
  To link established clusters for knowledge and experience sharing   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Training and promoting use of GAP in cassava production (land prepa- ration, pest and disease management, timely planting, timely weeding, use of improved seeds, fertilizer, herbicides)At least 300,000 farmers trained on GAPTo conduct farmers training and demo plots establishment at strategic locations to demonstrate the best practices for cassava crop management.Number of farmers trained Number of farmers using GAP in cassava productionMoA, TARI, IITA, LGAs universities and private sector, TACAPPA, MEDA2020- 2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 4: Strengthen and promote use of agricultural mechanization in cassava sub-sector
Introducing and adapting labour saving technologies to improve timeliness and efficiency of farm operationsAt least 10 new types of cassava machinery (for ploughing, ridging, planting, weeding, harvesting, post- harvesting, etc) introduced by 2030Identify, introduce, test and validate labour saving technologies in cassava farming e.g. planters, harvesters and weeders Establish sites to demonstrate the use of newly introduced machines Provide attractive incentives and facilitate local artisans to study introduced prototypes for adaptation to local conditionsNumber and type of machinery intro- duced and adopted Number of farmers having acquired modern farming equipmentMoA, universities, DPs, private sector, LGAs, VETA INTERMECH, CAMARTEC, TRIDO and SIDO2020 -2030
  Conduct Training of Trainers to selected farmers and technicians on the use of new agro-machineries   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate and promote private sector investment in agro-machinery along cassava value chainTwenty mechanization service provision centres established in seven agro – ecological zones by 2030To mobilize and sensitize agro- machinery stakeholders on the existing investment potential along cassava value chain To support establishment of private led agro-machinery hiring centresNumber of machinery hiring centres established Number of machin- ery hiring centers establishedPrivate sector, MoA, LGAs, MITI, service providers, TACAPPA2020- 2030
  To sensitize policy makers to provide incentive packages for local manufacturer of Agro-Machinery   
Facilitate and support local manufacturers of agro-machines to manufacture and disseminate farm implementsIntroduce three types of prototype machines by 2030 At least 30% of farmers mechanise cassava production by 2030To identify local manufacturers of agro- machinery, their capacities and capability To support development and dissemination of demand driven proto – type technologies.Number of local manufacturers supported Number of proto- type developed and disseminatedPrivate Sector, MoA, LGAs, MATI, service providers, SIDO, TIRDO, INTERMECH,2020 – 2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 5: Improve availability and accessibility of cassava seed and other inputs
Strengthening seed system for delivery of improved cassava varieties to farmers and other users (public and private)Increase availability of quality cassava planting material from 40.960 million cuttings in 2020 to 3.5 billion cuttings by 2030 Ensure at least 30% of the area under cassava production is planted with quality planting materials of improved varieties by 2030To develop effective cassava seed system through Public Private Part- nership Register all cassava seed producers To mobilize and sensitize cassava producing districts to allocate land for cassava seed multiplication To promote the use of improved cassava planting materials among farmersNumber of quality planting materials produced and dis- tributed % of area planted with improved cas- sava seedMoA, TARI, TOSCI Seed company, ASA, LGAs , pri- vate sector, DPs, Public institutions and NGOs2020- 2030 2020 -2030
  To introduce improved techniques for mass production and storage of early generation seeds (tissue culture, Semi- Autotrophic Hydroponic -SAH)   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Strengthen association of seed growers and other value chain actorsIncrease area of number of registered cassava planting materials multiplication farms from 398.85. hectares 2020 to 15,000 hectares by 2030To support formation, registration and training of Cassava Seed growers association Increase the number of seed companies engaging in cassava seed multiplicationNumber of seed companies, associations, and individual seed producers officially registeredMoA, TACAPPA, TOSCI, TARI, IITA, MEDA and LGAs2020 – 2030
Mobilize and facilitate public and private institutions to invest in input development and supplyIdentify and facilitate five large scale input suppliers by 2030 Train and deploy at least 100 authorised seed inspectors and 20 input suppliers by 2030To increase TOSCI performance by improving both working facilities and human resource capacity and capa- bilities To organize input suppliers and facilitate establishment of input supply centers proximity to farming catchment areaNumber of seed inspectors and agro dealers capacitated Number of private sectors involved in input supplyMoA LGAs, TOSCI, ASA, LGAs, private sector, service pro- viders, input sup- pler (agro-dealer)2020 -2030
  To mobilize and support establish- ment of private led commercial plant- ing material multiplication   
  To support input suppliers to provide quality inputs and services   
Strengthen and promote appropriate use of other inputs (pesticides, fertilizers) and irrigation to foster cassava productionDevelop and disseminate cassava fertilizer rates and facilitate establishment of at least five large scale input suppliers by 2030 At least fifty percent (50%) of early generation cassava seed farms equipped with modern irrigation facilities by 2030To support training to identified cassava stakeholders on the importance of using agro inputs in cassava production To support establishment of demonstration plots on various agro inputs recommended for increasing cassava production and quality To equip cassava seed farms with irrigation facilitiesNumber of famers using agricultural input in cassava farming Number of seed farms equipped with modern irrigation facilitieMoA, LGAs, Irriga- tion Commission, private sector, service providers, seed companies, input supplier (agro-dealer), farmers2020- 2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 6: Facilitate and strengthen postharvest management and value addition
Strengthen and Facilitate introduction of cost effec- tive post-harvest man- agement technologiesFacilitate 100 SMEs and processing groups. 20 larger scale processor with improved peeling, processing, drying and storage technologies by 2030To support access to improved demand driven processing and drying facilities to small scale, medium and large scale processors. To support processors with skills on the use of improved technologies To mobilize resources to support processing technology improvementNumber and type of technology introduced Number of processors service provider empoweredMoA. MITI, TARI, TRA, LGAs, DPS,2020- 2030
Strengthen and support local manufacturers of cassava processing machines to fabricate appropriate and affordable machinesFive manufacturers of processing equipment facilitated by 2030.To take inventory of existing processing technologies on demand and capabilities of local manufacturer To support local manufacturers to fabricate cassava processing equipment at affordable priceNumber of processing machinery manufacturer facilitated Type of equipment manufactured sold.MoA, MITI, SIDO, UNIDO, INTERMECH, CAMARTEC, private sector, DPs2020- 2030
  To support learning tour for local agro-machinery manufacturers to countries with improved cassava processing technologies.Number of cassava machinery sold  
Facilitate establishment of primary cassava processing centers and aggregators at the pro- duction catchmentFifty primary Agro-Processing Centres (ACP) and aggrega- tors at production catchments established and equipped with 200 mobile processing unit by 2030To identify potential processors group/individuals and suitable sites for establishment of primary cassava processing centers. To support procurement, construction and maintenance of primary processing centers To link mini cassava processing centers with medium and large scale processors to address the common marketNumber of primary processing units established Number of aggre- gators established and operationalMoA, MITI, SIDO, UNIDO, INTERMECH, CAMARTEC, private sector, DPs, processors, processing machine manufacturer 
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate establishment of        medium and large scale high value prod- ucts processing plants in major cassava growing zones through public pri- vate partnership (PPP)Fifteen medium and five large scale high value cassava products processing plants established and operational under PPP by 2030 Five new products developed and commercialized by 2030To identify potential investors and land for processing plants establish- ment To support establishment of medium and large scale processing plants to respond to a growing demand for specified cassava productsNumber of pro- cessing plants established Number of new products devel- oped and adoptedMoA, Ministry of Finance and Plan- ning, MATI, DPs, LGA, processor, private sector2020 -2030
  To promote markets for the devel- oped products at local, regional and international levels   
Upscaling of existing processing plants and enhance Good Manufac- turing Procedures (GMP)At least 150 processing plant upscaled by 2025 and GMP manual developed by 2023To identify gaps on existing process- ing units To Mobilize investors and facilitate owners of the processing plant to im- prove their processing technologiesNumber of proces- sors facilitatedMoA, MITI, private sector, universities, public and interna- tional institutes2020- 2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 7: Strengthen and facilitate phytosanitary services for compliance with international trade requirement
 Conduct surveillance annually Train 1,000 cassava value chain actors on phytosanitary compliance by 2030 Review and disseminate updated phytosanitary guide- lines and training manuals by 2025.To conduct annual surveillance and quarantine measures to prevent spread and introduction of new pests To review and disseminate phy- tosanitary guidelines To conduct training sessions on phy- tosanitary complianceNumber of sur- veillance reports produced Updated phytosan- itary Guideline and training manual in place Number of cassa- va stakeholders trainedMoA, PHS, NGOs, TARI, MATI, LGAs, private Sector, DPs, universities2020 -2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Strengthen capacities of plant health inspectors within the country at bor- der postsAll border posts re-tooled with improved equipment by 2030 Train 50 plant health service inspectors on cassava related protocol by 2030To support and re-tool border posts with improved equipment To conduct training session to plant health inspectors at border posts to improve inspection servicesNumber of border posts retooled Number of plant health personnel trainedMoA, PHS, NGOs, TARI, MATI, LGAs, TPRI, IITA, DPs2020 – 2030
Establish decentralized network for surveillance of cassava pests and diseasesTrain 200 extension officers in cassava growing districts for decentralized surveillance network by 2030To conduct training to District Agri- cultural produce inspectors (District Plant Protection Officers -DPPO’s), extension officers and farmers on management of cassava epidemics and pest monitoringNumber of exten- sion officers trainedMoA, PHS, NGOs, TARI, MATI, LGAs, TPRI, IITA, DPs2020 – 2030
Strengthen capacity of plant health services to manage pest risk threats and maintain pest risk documents for public usePrepare and maintain pest risk analyses for external cassava pests and disease threats by 2030To identify internal and external eco- nomic pests and Develop Pest risk document for public use To create awareness on how to man- age identified pestsNumber of pest risk analyses pre- paredMoA, Private Sector, DPs, LGAs, NGO,2020 -2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 8: Promote and facilitate cassava commercialization
To develop  cassa- va investment plan in alignment with ASDP II, TAIDF, FYDPIINational cassava investment plan developed and dissemi- nated by 2022 At least four large-scale and 10 medium-scale investment areas identified by 2030Analyze investment opportunities in the industry in support of cassava commercialization To carry out a detailed feasibility study to identify investment oppor- tunities and prepare cassava invest- ment road map To create awareness to potential investors and key actors on identified investment opportunities along the value chainCassava invest- ment plan docu- ment in place Number of invest- ment opportunity identified Number of inves- tors in support of cassava commer- cialization identi- fiedMinistry of Land, private sector, LGAs, DPs, MoA2020- 2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate improvement of basic infrastructure along the cassava value chain (feeder roads, stor- age facilities, electricity) by 2030.Improve 30% of basic infra- structures in major cassava producing zones by 2030To identify infrastructure gaps along the cassava value chain To mobilize ministries and institutions responsible (TARURA, REA, TAN- ESCO, Water Authority) for basic infrastructures (feeder roads, storage facilities, electricity, water supply, land) to support improvement of the required servicesNumber and type of infrastructure improvedMinistry of work, MoA, Private Sec- tor, LGAs, Develop- ment Partners2020- 2030
Enhance enabling envi- ronment for investment along the cassava value chainDevelop 400,000ha for cassa- va enterprise investments by 2030To harmonize and improve land acquisition procedures for both local and foreign cassava investors Mobilize LGAs to locate land and sensitize both local and international investors to develop the located land based on national land policy and regulations To provide supportive policy to inves- tors by developing and disseminating investment packages to stakeholdersArea of land in hectares devel- oped Number and type of investment in place Number and type of Investment in- centives developed and adoptedMinistry of work, MoA, Private Sec- tor, LGAs, Develop- ment Partners2020 – 2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 9: Strengthen cassava products market and marketing infrastructure
Establish a system for marketing cassava products at domestic and international marketsMarket system for cassava products (fresh roots, chips, flour, starch, ethanol) en- hanced by 2030To identify and take inventory (doc- umentation) of all cassava products, product developers and scale of production at various levels To conduct market potential and de- mand survey at domestic and inter- national levels To organise stakeholders to ad- dress market demand for identified products including wheat and starch import substitutionCassava market system in place Number and vol- ume of cassava market identified Number of cassava market chain actor identifiedMoA, Private sec- tor, LGAs, farmers, processors2020- 2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Strengthen and facilitate cassava marketing infra- structure and networkingFive small-scale and one large-scale cassava collection centers established in major cassava growing Districts by 2030 Two hundred farmers and processors groups trans- formed into Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AM- COS) by 2030 At least 500,000 farmers equipped with entrepreneur skills and Effective national market information centers and e-platform established by 2030To mobilize resources to support establishment of strategic marketing centers To mobilize farmers and proces- sors to form functional and effective cooperatives and AMCOS to address identified market segment To facilitate establishment of cassa- va products aggregation and trading centers equipped with quality stor- age facilities in cassava growing areas To organise and support trainings on business skills to cassava stakehold- ers To collect and package marketing information and disseminate through ICT application and stakeholders’ platformsNumber of markets and storage cen- ters established Number of cooper- atives established Number of stake- holders equipped with business skills A document on marketing informa- tion in place Quantity of cassa- va product market- edMOA, private sec- tor, NGOs. CBO, large scale proces- sors and traders, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Invest- ment, PO- LGAs, Cooperatives Telecom Compa- nies (TTCL, Tigo, Vodacom and Airtel), MVIWATA, MoA, private sector2020- 2030
Facilitate and promote cassava products di- versification to increase market share at domes- tic, Regional and interna- tional levelsCassava diversified into new products (feeds, starch, glucose syrup, ethanol, glue, blending cereal with HQCF, paper clips, confectionaries) introduced and adopted by 2030To identify new cassava products with high demand worldwide and develop program to increase market share To Support development of new cassava products (charcoal bri- quettes, chip boards, animal feeds, beer making etc) and explore mar- kets within and beyond TanzaniaNumber of diversi- fied products being tradedMoA, MATI, MoFA, MOHA, Po- RALG, private sector,2020- 2030
  To develop blending ratio of high quality cassava flour with cereals and its mandatory use   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Develop, review and promote use of national, regional and international standards of cassava productsFive national, regional and in- ternational cassava products specification adopted by 2030To take inventory of the existing cas- sava product standard at national, regional and international levels To identify gaps, review and develop new cassava products standard to meet market demandNumber of cassa- va specifications adopted Number of cassava stakeholders using the standardIITA, MOA, TFNC, TFDA, SIDO, pri- vate sectors, TBS 
  To conduct stakeholders workshops on standard compliance at all levels  
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 10: Strengthen cassava related policy and facilitate coordination among cassava stakeholders along the value chain
Strengthen collaboration and linkages between national, regional and international institutions involved in cassava value chainCassava stakeholders coordi- nation platform strengthened by 2025 Key development partners identified and coordinated annuallyTo identify public and private stake- holders in research, production, pro- cessing and marketing of cassava at national, regional and international levels To conduct cassava stakeholders’ workshop and facilitate establish- ment of sector wide operational platforms, national and regional plat- forms, clusters and associationsNumber of key partners identified Number of plat- forms and forums established and operational Number of work- shops conductedMoA, IITA, TARI, international orga- nizations, develop- ment partners2020 -2030
  
  Establish strong and operational Na- tional Cassava Steering Committee (NCCC) 
  To support national, regional and international forums to strengthen coordination and experience sharing 
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Facilitate and strength- en policy and regulatory environment for growth of cassava sub-sector by 2030Policy and regulation strengthened by 2025To analyze, review and develop policies and regulation for smooth investments and growth of cassava sub-sector To support formulation and devel- opment of policy directives on fortifi- cation and blending of cassava with cereals and as substitute for wheat flour and imported starch to increase market shareNumber of policies developed and/ or, reviewed and adopted Number of policy directives devel- oped and adoptedMoA, PM Office, PO –RALG, private sector, IITA, DPS, cassava stakehold- ers2020 – 2030
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 11: Strengthen cassava stakeholders access to financial services
Strengthen and facilitate accessibility to financial services to cassava stakeholders along the value chainAt least 10,000 cassava stakeholders linked with fi- nancial institutions by 2030.To sensitize and mobilize local and international development partners to support cassava development activities To support establishment of cassava value chain actors led AMCOS and SACCOS in major cassava produc- ing areasNumber of devel- opment partners, banks, NGOs mo- bilized to support cassava sub-sector Number of farm- ers receiving bank loansMoA, MIT, Private Sector, TADB, NMB, SACCOS, AMCOS, DPs2020 – 2030
  To sensitize and mobilize financial institutions to support cassava sub- sector   
  To strengthen linkage of cassava stakeholders along the value chain with financial institutions through forums and publication of loan schemes   
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
Promote cooperative/ associations for cassava stakeholders to enhance financial stabilityAt least 500% of cassava pro- ducers and processors group facilitated to form coopera- tives (AMCOS) and SACCOS by 2030To sensitize and mobilize cassava stakeholders to establish coopera- tives and SACCOS To train cassava stakeholders on financial management skillsNumber of cooper- atives and SAC- COS established  
 Fund raising scheme estab- lished by 2030  
Strengthen and facilitate crop insurance scheme to protect cassava value chain actorsCassava Farmers guarantee and ensure scheme estab- lished by 2030Awareness creation on importance of Crop Insurance Identify Insurance Company and link with Cassava value chain actors Conduct training to cassava value chain actors on access and servicing of crop related insurance schemesNumber of farmers accessing bank loans Number of in- surance scheme established Number of cassava actors trainedMoA, MIT, private sector, TADB, NMB, SACCOS, AMCOS, Insurance Companies,2020 – 2030
Enhance enabling envi- ronment for investment along the cassava value chainDevelop 400,000 ha for cassava enterprise investments by 2030To harmonize and improve land acquisition procedures for both local and foreign cassava investors Mobilize LGAs to locate land and sensitize both local and international investors to develop the located land based on national land policy and regulations To provide supportive policy to inves- tors by developing and disseminating investment packages to stakeholdersArea of land in hectares devel- oped Number and type of investments in place Number and type of Investment in- centives providedMoA, LGAs, NBS, TARI, IITA, private sector, farmers and processors organi- zation2020 – 2030
StrategyTargetsActivitiesPerformance indicatorsResponsible Institution/ organizationTime frame
      
S0 12. Strengthen the availability and accessibility of robust cassava data along the value chain
Promote and strengthen appropriate system for data collection, analysis and dissemination of cassava informationAppropriate tools for data col- lection, analysis and dissemi- nation of cassava information promoted and strengthened by 2030To facilitate development of im- proved cost-effective data collection, analysis and dissemination tools To facilitate registration and mobiliza- tion of cassava farmers, processors, aggregators and traders To package and disseminate rele- vant cassava information to stake- holdersTools to collect and analyse cassava data in placeMoA, LGAs, NBS, TARI, IITA, private sector, farmers organization 
Promote and strengthen collaboration with other stakeholders on their par- ticipation in cassava data collection and dissemi- nationTwo hundred and fifty stake- holders participate in cassava data collection, analysis and dissemination by 2030To sensitize and train stakeholders on data collection and management To facilitate stakeholders to take part in data collection and managementNumber of stake- holders partici- pating in cassava data collection and disseminationMoA, LGAs, NBS, TARI, IITA, private sector, farmers organization 

Ministry of Agriculture, Government City – Mtumba,

P.O. Box 2182, Dodoma.

Tel: +255 (026) 2321407/ 2320035

Fax: +255 (026) 2320037

Email: ps@kilimo.go.tz